ScholarshipofEngagem entVideoConferenceUSI

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Where is the Scholarship in the Scholarship of Engagement?: 

Where is the Scholarship in the Scholarship of Engagement? Lorilee R. Sandmann, University of Georgia University of Southern Indiana January 5 , 2004

The Scholarship of Engagement: 

The Scholarship of Engagement “…the academy must become a more vigorous partner in the search for answers to our most pressing social, civic, economic and moral problems, and must reaffirm its historic commitment to what I call the scholarship of engagement.” Boyer, E.L.. (1996). The Scholarship of engagement. Journal of Public Service & Outreach 1(1), 9-20.


What is engagement? What is scholarship? What is the scholarship of engagement/public engagement? What are the standards of scholarship? What are the systems to support the scholarship of engagement?

An Engaged Institution…: 

An Engaged Institution… is fully committed to direct, two-way interaction with communities and other external constituencies through the development , exchange, and application of knowledge, information and expertise for mutual benefit. Stepping Forward As Stewards of Place, AASCU, 2002

Values/Norms of Engagement: 

Values/Norms of Engagement Place-Related Interactive—Respectful/Collaborative Mutually Beneficial Integrated Dedication to Learning—emphasis on values of community, responsibility, stewardship, and mutual concern

Making a Place for the New American Scholar: 

Making a Place for the New American Scholar Rather than fostering careers in which faculties are disconnected from society, American higher education institutions can form new models that encourage faculty to engage in multiple forms of scholarship throughout their academic career. Need a new reward system that cultivates knowledge anchored in practice, a reworking of the tenure system, and continuous review of senior faculty. Rice (1996). New Pathways Working Paper (No. 1). Washington, DC: American Association for Higher Education.


Ewert, 1999


What are the ways that USI demonstrates it is an engaged institution?

What is Scholarship?: 

What is Scholarship? Scholarship is original intellectual work which is communicated and the significance is validated by peers. Scholarship may emerge from teaching, research or other responsibilities. Scholarship may take the many forms including, but not limited to: research contributing to a body of knowledge, development of new technology, materials, or methods; integration of knowledge or technology leading to new interpretations or applications; creation and interpretation in the arts. Oregon State University, 1999


Scholarship To move from the realm of teaching. research or service to scholarship essential elements the faculty member must document include: Broad dissemination to others of the results Peer Review Use or adoption by colleagues at other institutions

Forms of Scholarship: 

Forms of Scholarship Scholarship of Discovery Scholarship of Integration Scholarship of Application Scholarship of Teaching Boyer, E.L. (1990). Scholarship Reconsidered: Priorities of the Professorate. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Scholarship of Engagement: 

Scholarship of Engagement Term that capture scholarship in the multiple aspects of teaching, research, and/or service. This type of scholarship engages faculty in academically relevant work that simultaneously fulfills the campus mission and goals as well as community needs. Engagement is a scholarly agenda that incorporates communities issues and which can be within or integrative across teaching research and service. National Review Board for the Scholarship of Engagement

Scholarship of Engagement: 

Scholarship of Engagement Scholarly boundary crossing Scholarship in engagement Engagement in teaching Engagement in research Engagement in service Scholarship guided by an engagement ethos—connect in coherent, thematic, scholarly ways


Unpack Service!


“I, my colleagues, and discipline never came to fully know and understand my work because it needed to be reported as either teaching, research or service. It had to fit in only one of the ‘boxes’” David Cooper Professor American Thought and Language Michigan State University


“We’re doing something unique, and we don’t want to document it in a traditional way. My outreach activities are not meant to be a substitute for traditional research scholarship. They represent a new paradigm.” Warren Rauhe Professor, Landscape Architecture Michigan State University


“The opportunity to delve deeply into the political and philosophical implications of our work, to revise and refine our documentation in a genuine community of scholars will serve as a model of inquiry and reflection in my career.” P. Schechter Professor, History Portland State University


“While outreach scholarship is situated in the “swamp,” one can take a scholarly approach to the swamp and not get buried in it!” Cheryl Rosaen Professor,Teacher Education Michigan State University

The Result?: 

The Result? A fairly conventional and stable approach to scholarship, is today a fertile evolving, multifarious, and even contested environment. Scholars need to recognize, understand, and respect multiple ways of knowing, interpreting, and practicing.


How does the faculty community at USI define scholarship…and the scholarship of engagement?


Dilemma Viewing scholarship broadly but evaluating it narrowly


Quality... in any area should be rewarded, but mediocrity, even if it is published, should not. Maynard Mack, Metropolitan Universities

Quality—Evaluation Criteria: 

Quality—Evaluation Criteria Goals/questions Context of theory, literature, best practices Methods Results Communication/dissemination Reflective critique National Review Board Scholarship of Engagement, 2000

Recognizing Excellent Engagement Scholarship: 

Recognizing Excellent Engagement Scholarship Study Purpose: Identify aspects of assistant professor promotion and tenure packets (documentation) associated with positive promotion recommendations General Conclusions Outreach forms of teaching, research, and service are increasingly accepted (as legitimate) in promotion High quality performance and accomplishment is more important than the proportion of outreach. Promotion Packet Guidelines Knox. A. (2001).College Teaching


“For the project, I was looking at my work to demonstrate the scholarship. Now I am using an understanding of scholarship to guide my work.” Jim Lloyd Professor, Veterinary Medicine and Agricultural Economics, Michigan State University


What criteria does USI use to evaluate faculty scholarly work and contributions?

“You can’t put lipstick on a bulldog.”: 

“You can’t put lipstick on a bulldog.”

System to Support Scholarship of Engagement: 

System to Support Scholarship of Engagement Develop a learning community Common understanding of terms Rationale of reasons and rewards Other models adapted Collaborative Processes that are rigorous, reliable, understood by traditionalists, yet appropriate Capacity building Culture change and alignment


Is there room for diverse genres of scholarship to be supported/maintained? Can past research practices by honored while supporting the scholarship for the public good? Is there collective will? How do faculties come to be motivated to use a reciprocal/community-collaborative approach? How can faculty and partners be best prepared to work together toward mutually beneficial ends? What is appropriate and sustained institutional infrastructure to support scholarly engagement? Others…

Institutional Alignment at MSU: A Seven Step Process: 

Institutional Alignment at MSU: A Seven Step Process Defining outreach Defining and operationalizing quality outreach Engaging support Leading departmental chair and faculty forums addressing outreach scholarship Aligning institutional planning Aligning evaluation of faculty work Documenting quality outreach—faculty and institutional level


Basic Resources Boyer, E. T. (1990). Scholarship reconsidered: Priorities for the professoriate. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Boyer, E. T. (1996). The scholarship of engagement. Journal of Public Service and Outreach 1(1) 9-20. Driscoll, A.& Lynton, E. A. (1999). Making outreach visible: A Guide to documenting professional service and outreach. Washington, DC: American Association for Higher Education. Driscoll, A, & Sandmann., L.R. (2001). From maverick to mainstream. The scholarship of engagement. Journal of Higher Education Outreach and Engagement 6(2): 9-19. Fear, F. A., Rosaen, C., Foster-Fishman, P. & Bawden, R.J. (2001). Outreach as scholarly expression: a faculty perspective. Journal of Higher Education Outreach and Engagement 6(2): 21-34. Glassick,C.E., Huber, M.T. & Maeroff, G. I. (1997). Scholarship assessed: Evaluation of the professoriate. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Schön, D. A. (1995). Knowing-in-action: the new scholarship requires a new epistemology. Change (Nov.-Dec.): 27-34. Zahorski, K.J. (Ed.). (2002). Scholarship in the postmodern era: New venues, new values, new visions. New Directions for Teaching and Learning, No. 90. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.


Future… “…the experience of engagement will become the pathway to a fresh interpretation of the 21st century. This conception rests on the rethinking of the core of the academy, namely, the nature of scholarship itself.” Judith Ramaley, NSF, 2002

Lorilee R. Sandmann: 

Lorilee R. Sandmann The University of Georgia College of Education 413 River’s Crossing Bldg. Athens, GA 30602 706.542.4014

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