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Premium member Presentation Transcript Organization of The Nervous System: Organization of The Nervous System By Prof. Saeed Abuel Makarem& Dr. Sanaa SharawyObjectives: Objectives At the end of the lecture, the students should be able to: List the parts of the nervous system. Define the following terms: Grey matter, white matter, nucleus, ganglion, tract, nerve. List the parts of the brain. List the structures protecting the central nervous system.How does the nervous system work ?: How does the nervous system work ? The nervous system has three functions : Collection of sensory input : Identifies changes occurring inside and outside the body by using sensory receptors. These changes are called stimuli. I ntegration : Processes, analyses and interprets these changes and makes decisions. Motor output : Response by activating muscles or glands (effectors). INTRODUCTIONCLASSIFICATION: CLASSIFICATION STRUCTURAL CNS. PNS. FUNCTIONAL Sensory division (Afferent). Motor division (Efferent). Autonomic. Somatic. The Nervous System : The Nervous System It is the major controlling, regulatory, & communicating system in the body. It is the center of all mental activity including thought, learning, behaviour and memory. Together with the endocrine system, the nervous system is responsible for regulating and maintaining homeostasis.Structural Organization: Structural Organization Two subdivisions: Central Nervous System (CNS): Consists of Brain & Spinal cord Occupies the dorsal body cavity Acts as the integrating and command centers. Peripheral Nervous System (PNS): Consists of part of the nervous system outside the CNS: Nerves, ganglia, receptors.Functional Organization: Functional Organization Two subdivisions: Sensory or afferent division : Consists of nerve fibers that convey impulses from receptors located in various parts of the body, to the CNS. Motor or efferent division : Consists of nerve fibers that convey impulses from the CNS to the effector organs, muscles and glands. Both sensory and motor subdivisions are further divided into: Somatic division: concerned with skin, skeletal muscles and joints. Autonomic division: concerned with the visceral organsNervous Tissue: Nervous Tissue Nervous system is composed of nervous tissue , which contains two types of cells: Nerve cells or neurons Supporting cells or neuroglia (glia). Nervous system contains millions of neurons that vary in their shape, size, and number of processes. The junction site of two neurons is called a ‘synapse In the synapses the membranes of adjacent cells are in close apposition (contiguity not continuity).Slide 9: Nervous tissue is organized as: Grey matter : Which contains : 1-Cell bodies & 2-Processes of the neurons, 3-Neuroglia and 4-Blood vessels. White matter: Which contains : 1-Processes of the neurons (no cell bodies) 2-Neuroglia and, 3-Blood vesselsSlide 10: Nucleus= A group of neurons within the CNS Ganglion= A group of neurons outside the CNS Tract = A group of nerve fibers (axons) within the CNS Nerve = A group of nerve fibers (axons) outside the CNS Remember…Slide 11: Prof. Saeed Makarem It is the basic structural (anatomical) , functional and embryological unit of the nervous system. The human nervous system is estimated to contain about 10 10 . It is formed of cell body and many processes. Neurons What is neurone?Slide 12: Prof. Saeed Makarem Most of the processes of the cell body are short with variable numbers and are receptive in function. They are known as Dendrites .Slide 13: Prof. Saeed Makarem One of the processes leaving the cell body is called the axon which carries information away from the cell body. Axons are highly variable in length and may divide into several branches or collaterals through which information can be distributed to a number of different destinations. At the end of the axon, specializations called terminal buttons occur. Here information is transferred to the dendrites of other neurones.Slide 14: Neuroglia, or glia cells constitute the other major cellular component of the nervous system. It is a specialized connective tissue for the nervous system. Unlike neurones, neuroglia do not have a direct role in information processing but they are essential for the normal functioning of nerve cells. Prof. Saeed Makarem Neuroglia or gliaSlide 15: Prof. Saeed Makarem Three main types of neuroglial cell are recognized: Oligodendrocytes (oligodendroglia) they form the myelin sheath that surrounds many neuronal axons, which increase the rate of conduction.Slide 16: Prof. Saeed Makarem 2- Microglia h ave a phagocytic role in response to nervous system damage.Slide 17: Prof. Saeed Makarem Astrocytes are thought to form a selectively permeable barrier between the circulatory system and the neurons of the brain and spinal cord. This is known as the 'blood-brain barrier ' and has a protective function.Slide 18: Prof. Saeed Makarem Spinal nerves supplying the upper or lower limbs form plexuses e.g. brachial or lumbar plexus . Nerve cell bodies that are aggregated outside the CNS are called GANGLIASlide 19: Prof. Saeed Makarem Neurones that detect changes and control the activity of, the viscera are collectively referred to as the autonomic nervous system. Its components are present in both the central and peripheral nervous systems . Autonomic Nervous SystemSYMPATHETIC & PARASYMPATHETIC SYSTEMS: SYMPATHETIC & PARASYMPATHETIC SYSTEMS The autonomic nervous system is divided into two anatomically and functionally distinct parts : Sympathetic: Or Thoracolumbar outflow Parasympathetic : Or Craniosacral outflow . Sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions are generally have antagonistic effects on the structures which they innervate. E.g. Sympathetic increases the heat rate, while the parasympathetic decreases the heart rate.Slide 21: Prof. Saeed Makarem The autonomic nervous system innervates: Smooth muscle, Cardiac muscle, Secretory glands. It is an important part of the homeostatic mechanisms that control the internal environment of the body.PARTS OF THE BRAIN: PARTS OF THE BRAIN Cerebral hemispheres Diencephalon Cerebellum Brain stemCEREBRAL HEMISPHERES: CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES The largest part of the brain. They have elevations, called gyri. Gyri are separated by depressions called sulci. Each hemisphere is divided into 6 lobes. Lobes are separated by deeper grooves called fissures or sulci. FRONTAL PARIETAL TEMPORAL OCCIPITALTISSUE OF THE CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES: TISSUE OF THE CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES The outer layer is the gray matter or cortex. Deeper is located the white matter , composed of bundles of nerve fibers, carrying impulses to and from the cortex. B asal nuclei are gray matter and are located deep within the white matter. They help the motor cortex in regulation of voluntary motor activities. Basal nucleiDIENCEPHALON: DIENCEPHALON The diencephalon is located between the 2 hemispheres and is linked to them and to the brainstem. The major structures of the diencephalon are the Thalamus , Hypothalamus and Epithalamus .BRAIN STEM: BRAIN STEM The brainstem has three parts: Midbrain , Pons and Medulla oblongata.CEREBELLUM: CEREBELLUM C erebellum has 2 cerebellar hemispheres with convoluted surface. It has an outer cortex of gray matter and an inner region of white matter. It provides precise coordination for body movements and helps maintain equilibrium.BRAIN VENTRICLES: BRAIN VENTRICLES Brain is bathed by the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Inside the brain, there are ventricles filled with CSF There are 4 ventricles 2 lateral ventricles: One in each hemispheres 3 rd ventricle: in the diencephalon 4 th ventricle: between the Pons, medulla oblongata & the cerebellum -------------------------------- N.B. C erebral aqueduct: connects the 3 rd to the 4 th ventricleCEREBROSPINAL FLUID: CEREBROSPINAL FLUID CSF is constantly produced by the choroid plexuses inside each ventricle . Inside the brain, CSF flows from the lateral ventricles to the 3 rd and 4 th ventricles From the 4 th ventricle, part of the CSF flows down in the central canal of the spinal cord. Most of the CSF drains from the 4 th ventricle in the subarachnoid space around the brain and returns to the dural sinuses through the arachnoids villi. You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.