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Cedrus deodara

Cedrus deodara : 

Cedrus deodara Common name: Deodar, Himalayan Cedar Family: Coniferae Distribution: Well distributed in western Himalayas; from Kashmir in the west to Nepal in the East; abundant in 1900m to 2600m. It occurs extensively in the Himalayan moist temperate forest of western Himalayas of Himachal, U.P and Kashmir.

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Deodar is an evergreen tree with horizontally spreading branches and dark green foliage, forming a typical conical crown with a definite leading shoot. The bark of young tree is greenish, thin &smooth ,turning greyish brown with vertical as well diagonal cracks with age.

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Deodar is one the most important timber trees of India, other being Sal and Teak, All are naturally durable. The timber is moderately hard & heavy, scented, very durable & easy to work. Its timber is highly valued for building & bridge construction, joinery, furniture & very suitable for Railway sleepers.

Contd.. : 

Contd.. Deodar is in great demand as building material because of its durability, rot-resistant character and fine close grain, which is capable of taking high polish. Its historical use to construct religious temples and as landscape around temples is well recorded. Its rot-resistant character also makes it an ideal wood for constructing the famous houseboats of Srinagar, Kashmir.

Houseboats : 

Houseboats Shikaras

Species distribution : 

Species distribution Native range: Afghanistan, India, Nepal, Pakistan Exotic range: Argentina, Canada, China, France, Germany, Italy, Spain

Distribution in Indian Sub-Continent : 

Distribution in Indian Sub-Continent

Biophysical limits : 

Biophysical limits Altitude: 1200 to 3500 m Mean annual temperature: 12 - 17ºC Mean annual rainfall: 200-1800 mm Soil type: It prefers loam (predomina- ntly sandy) soils with high levels of organic carbon, low phosphorus and high potash contents. It avoids stiff, badly drained soil, and its growth is stunted on rocky shallow soil. The best growth is attained on deep, fairly porous, fertile soil in cool situations.

Forest types and Associates : 

Forest types and Associates In Western mixed coniferous forests its associates are: Abies pindrow, Picea smithiana & Pinus wallichiana. It also occurs in the dry temperate coniferous forest. In broad leaved groups, it is found associated with Quercus incana, Q. semecarpifolia and Q. dilatata

Description : 

Description Height: 40 to 60 feet Crown uniformity: symmetrical canopy with a regular (or smooth) outline, and individuals have more or less identical crown forms Crown shape: pyramidal Crown density: moderate Texture: fine

Foliage : 

Foliage Leaf arrangement: spiral Leaf type: simple Leaf margin: entire Leaf shape: needle-like Leaf venation: parallel Leaf type and persistence: evergreen; needle leaf evergreen Leaf blade length: less than 2 inches Leaf color: green; silver Fall color: no fall color change

Phenology : 

Phenology Old leaves are shed for most part of hot season, chiefly in May. Deodar is evergreen throughout the year. Deodar is generally dioecious, if monoecious then autoeceous.

Male Cones : 

Male Cones Appears in June. By the end of this month they become clearly visible at moderate elevations. Ripen and shed their pollen from the middle of September to the middle of October. Male cones are solitary.

Contd.. : 

Contd.. When young they are pale greenish, before ripening. Oblong, ovoid, 1-1.8 inches long and become yellow with pollen. The pollen is blown far and wide by the wind.

Female cones : 

Female cones Appears in August and pollination takes place mid September to mid of October. Solitary and erect at the ends of arrested branchlets on the upper sides of the branches. At the time of pollination they are inconspicuous, oblong ovoid, 0.5-0.8 inches long, 0.25 inches in dia, pale glaucous, green

Contd.. : 

Contd.. The scale in female cones are in spirals of 8X5 inches long, perpendicular to the axis exposing the ovules, which close after pollination.

Development & ripening of cone : 

Development & ripening of cone No growth in young cones untill the following spring, by the end of June or during July they become full sized, and are pale yellowish green. They turn chocolate-brown in colour during august, & ripen from the end of September to middle or end of November.

Contd.. : 

Contd.. Time occupied from first appearance of female cone to the ripening of cone is about 12½ to 13½ months. The ripe cones are erect, brown, ovoid or ellipsoidal 3-4.5 inches long by 2 – 3.5 inches in diameter.

Contd.. : 

Contd.. Cones break up on the tree itself Scales & winged seeds fall on the ground and only the persistent axis remaining on the tree. Cones are collected off the trees immediately before they open in early September to early October. They are placed in sun for a week & break up.

Natural Regeneration : 

Natural Regeneration Seed years: Every third year is a good seed year with abundant cone bearing trees. Seed dispersed in Oct-Nov remains on the ground throughout the winter, under the snow and germinates in the spring during Mar-Apr Germination takes earlier in the warmer than the cooler aspects.

Silviculture system : 

Silviculture system The silviculture system adopted in case of Cedrus deodara is Indian irregular shelter wood system, referred to as Punjab shelter wood in case of Deodar.

Artificial Regeneration : 

Artificial Regeneration Necessary to restock abandoned cultivation and burnt areas, to introduce proportion of deodar in Spruce and kail areas. Types Direct sowing Planting

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Contd.. Direct sowing is done by broadcasting or along contour lines 3 metre apart in well worked 30 cm wide or inn patches 1.5X0.5m spread 2m apart. Planting of Nursery raised seedlings 2½ to 3½ years old are planted. Planting space: 2X2 to 2½X2½

Contd.. : 

Contd.. Deodar is slow growing species . Rate of plantation varies widely with locality. In Himalayas, a 17 year old plantation, maximum girth recorded was 0.6m and height 7.5m

Pest and Disease : 

Pest and Disease Deodar is defoliated by Ectropis deodarae. Death of defoliated tree starts from top. The predator which eats Caterpillar is Calesoma beesomi. Incidence of Damping off caused by different species of Fusarium, Rhizoctonia solani and Pythium.

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Lolab Range (Kashmir) Deodar Forest

References : 

References ( Ares A, Marlats RM. 1995. Site factors related to growth of coniferous plantations in a temperate, Australian Forestry. 58(3): 118-128.

Contd.. : 

Contd.. Plantation trees By R.K.Luna. Silviculture of Indian trees by Troup. Silviculture of useful trees by L.S.Khanna

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