GMAT-Grammar-Book-Part-I

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This is only a sample of the first part (Basic Grammar). The full book consists of 2 other parts (Intermediate and Advanced grammar) and is 294 pages. For more information please visit : http://gmatclub.com/forum/gmat-grammar-ebook-by-gmat-club-free-this-book-will-be-102387.html

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2 Download the full version here: http://gmatclub.com/forum/gra-102387.html Thank you for downloading this e-book. Significant time and work were put into creating it. I hope you will find it helpful and comprehensive. This book is a collective product based on input and feedback from many members. If you have any questions or suggestions please do not hesitate to post them here on gmat club forum: Good luck on the GMAT Updated: 1/24/2011 Best Regards BB Founder of GMAT Club November 1 st 2010 This is only a sample of the first part Basic Grammar. The full book consists of 2 other parts Intermediate and Advanced grammar and is 294 pages.

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3 Table of Contents HOW TO USE THIS GUIDE .................................................................................................................. 11 RULES ....................................................................................................................................................... 11 PART I – BASIC ...................................................................................................................................... 12 1. BASIC ENGLISH SENTENCE STRUCTURE ......................................................................... 13 Subject ................................................................................................................................................ 13 Verb .................................................................................................................................................... 14 Complement Object ......................................................................................................................... 14 Modifier .............................................................................................................................................. 15 Exercise 1: Identifying Subject Verb Complement and Modifier .................................................... 15 2. NOUNS .......................................................................................................................................... 17 The Noun Phrase ................................................................................................................................ 17 Count and Non-Count Nouns ............................................................................................................. 17 Exercise 2: Identifying Count and Non-Count Nouns ........................................................................ 18 Articles: A And An.............................................................................................................................. 19 Articles: The ....................................................................................................................................... 19 Exercise 3: Using Articles .................................................................................................................. 22 Other / Another ................................................................................................................................... 22 Exercise 4: Using Other / Another ..................................................................................................... 23 Determiners of Quantity ..................................................................................................................... 24 Exercise 5: Determining Quantity ...................................................................................................... 25 Collective Nouns ................................................................................................................................ 26 Nouns That Are Always Plural ........................................................................................................... 26 Nouns That Function As Adjectives ................................................................................................... 26 3. VERBS ........................................................................................................................................... 27 Regular Verb Conjugation Chart ........................................................................................................ 27 Verb Tense Usage Chart ..................................................................................................................... 28

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4 Present Simple .................................................................................................................................... 28 Present Continuous Progressive ....................................................................................................... 29 Present Perfect .................................................................................................................................... 30 Exercise 6: Using the Present Tense Forms of Verbs ........................................................................ 30 Past Simple ......................................................................................................................................... 31 Past Continuous Progressive ............................................................................................................ 31 Past Perfect ......................................................................................................................................... 33 Exercise 7: Using the Past Tense Forms of Verbs .............................................................................. 35 Future Simple ..................................................................................................................................... 35 Future Continuous Progressive ........................................................................................................ 36 Future Perfect ..................................................................................................................................... 36 Exercise 8: Using the Future Tense of Verbs ..................................................................................... 37 The Perfect Continuous Progressive Tense ..................................................................................... 37 Present Perfect Continuous Progressive .......................................................................................... 37 Past Perfect Continuous Progressive ............................................................................................... 38 Future Perfect Continuous Progressive ............................................................................................ 39 Exercise 9: Using the Perfect Continuous Tense of Verbs ................................................................. 39 4. LINKING VERBS.......................................................................................................................... 40 5. CONTINUOUS VERSUS NON-CONTINUOUS VERBS ........................................................... 41 Non-Continuous Verbs ....................................................................................................................... 41 Mixed Verb Forms ............................................................................................................................. 43 6. COMMON DISTINGUISHMENTS .............................................................................................. 44 There + Be .......................................................................................................................................... 44 Beginning a Sentence with Here or There .......................................................................................... 44 Say / Tell ............................................................................................................................................. 44 Exercise 10: Using Say and Tell ......................................................................................................... 45 Know / Know How .............................................................................................................................. 46

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5 Exercise 11: Using Know and Know How .......................................................................................... 46 Need / In Need Of ............................................................................................................................... 47 Exercise 12: Using Need .................................................................................................................... 47 Like / As .............................................................................................................................................. 48 Exercise 13: Using Like / As ............................................................................................................... 49 Between / Among ............................................................................................................................... 50 Exercise 14: Using Between / Among ................................................................................................. 51 7. PROPER USE OF PROBLEM VERBS ......................................................................................... 52 Exercise 15: Using Raise/Rise Set/Sit and Lay/Lie ............................................................................ 52 8. SUBJECT/VERB AGREEMENT PLACEMENT ..................................................................... 53 Exercise 16: Subject/Verb Agreement ............................................................................................... 54 9. PRONOUNS .................................................................................................................................. 55 Subject Pronouns ................................................................................................................................ 55 Comparative Object Pronouns ......................................................................................................... 56 Possessive Pronouns ........................................................................................................................... 57 Possessive Adjectives ......................................................................................................................... 57 Reflective Pronouns............................................................................................................................ 58 Exercise 17: Using Pronouns .............................................................................................................. 59 Pronouns in Apposition ...................................................................................................................... 60 Indefinite Pronouns ............................................................................................................................ 60 10. QUESTIONS .............................................................................................................................. 62 Yes/No Questions ............................................................................................................................... 62 Informative Questions ........................................................................................................................ 62 Embedded Questions .......................................................................................................................... 63 Exercise 18: Creating Embedded Questions ...................................................................................... 64 Tag Questions ..................................................................................................................................... 64 Exercise 19: Creating Tag Questions ................................................................................................. 65

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6 11. ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS ............................................................................................... 66 Adjectives ........................................................................................................................................... 66 Adverbs .............................................................................................................................................. 66 Exercise 20: Using Adjectives and Adverbs ...................................................................................... 68 COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS: PART I .................................................................................... 69 Parallel Structure ................................................................................................................................ 69 Exercise 21: Using Conjunctions in Parallel Structure....................................................................... 70 PREPOSITIONS AND PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES ........................................................................ 71 Exercise 22: Identifying Prepositions and Objects of Prepositions .................................................... 71 12. COMPARISONS ........................................................................................................................ 73 Equal Comparisons ............................................................................................................................. 73 Unequal Comparisons ........................................................................................................................ 74 Positives Comparatives and Superlatives .......................................................................................... 75 Irregular Comparatives and Superlatives ........................................................................................... 76 Numbered Comparatives .................................................................................................................... 76 Double Comparatives ......................................................................................................................... 77 No Sooner ........................................................................................................................................... 77 Exercise 23: Using Comparisons ........................................................................................................ 77 Exercise 24: Using Comparisons: Than As From ............................................................................ 78 13. COMMANDS ............................................................................................................................ 79 Negative Commands .......................................................................................................................... 79 Indirect Commands ............................................................................................................................ 79 Negative Indirect Commands ............................................................................................................. 79 14. NEGATION – PART I - USING NOT ...................................................................................... 79 None / No ............................................................................................................................................ 80 Some / Any .......................................................................................................................................... 80 Either / Neither ................................................................................................................................... 80

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7 15. DOUBLE NEGATIVES ............................................................................................................ 81 Exercise 25: Avoiding Double Negatives .......................................................................................... 81 Practice Test 1 ............................................................................................................................................ 82 PART II: INTERMEDIATE .......................................................................... Error Bookmark not defined. 18. COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS: PART II .......................... Error Bookmark not defined. Correlative Paired Conjunctions .......................................................... Error Bookmark not defined. Combining Independent Clauses with Coordinating Conjunctions ........ Error Bookmark not defined. Subordinating Conjunctions Which Connect Adverb Clauses ............ Error Bookmark not defined. 19. RELATIVE CLAUSES .................................................................. Error Bookmark not defined. Relative Pronouns ................................................................................... Error Bookmark not defined. Who / Whom / Whose .............................................................................. Error Bookmark not defined. Restrictive and Nonrestrictive Clauses ................................................... Error Bookmark not defined. Adjective Clause Pronouns Used as the Subject .................................... Error Bookmark not defined. Exercise 26: Creating Relative Clauses .................................................. Error Bookmark not defined. 20. GERUNDS AND INFINITIVES ................................................... Error Bookmark not defined. Gerunds as Subjects ................................................................................ Error Bookmark not defined. Noun + Preposition Followed by a Gerund ............................................ Error Bookmark not defined. Verbs Always Followed by a Gerund..................................................... Error Bookmark not defined. Adjective + Preposition Followed by a Gerund ..................................... Error Bookmark not defined. Pronouns before a Gerund or Infinitive .................................................. Error Bookmark not defined. Verbs Always Followed by an Infinitive ................................................ Error Bookmark not defined. Adjectives Followed by an Infinitive ..................................................... Error Bookmark not defined. Exercise 27: Using Gerunds and Infinitives ........................................... Error Bookmark not defined. 21. CAUSATIVE VERBS.................................................................... Error Bookmark not defined. Have / Get ............................................................................................... Error Bookmark not defined. Make ....................................................................................................... Error Bookmark not defined. Let / Help – Verbs often considered Causative ...................................... Error Bookmark not defined.

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8 Exercise 28: Using Causative Verbs ...................................................... Error Bookmark not defined. 22. AFFIRMATIVE AGREEMENT SO / TOO................................ Error Bookmark not defined. Exercise 29: Using Affirmative Agreement ........................................... Error Bookmark not defined. 23. NEGATION – PART II.................................................................. Error Bookmark not defined. Hardly Barely Rarely Seldom Etc. ..................................................... Error Bookmark not defined. 24. MODAL AUXILIARY VERBS .................................................... Error Bookmark not defined. Negation of Modals ................................................................................ Error Bookmark not defined. Forming Questions with Modals ............................................................ Error Bookmark not defined. Exercise 30: Using Modals ..................................................................... Error Bookmark not defined. Conditional Sentences ............................................................................ Error Bookmark not defined. Real Conditions Possibly True ............................................................ Error Bookmark not defined. Unreal Conditions Not True ................................................................ Error Bookmark not defined. Exercise 31: Using Real and Unreal Conditionals ................................. Error Bookmark not defined. Whether / If ............................................................................................. Error Bookmark not defined. 25. CAUSE CONNECTORS ............................................................... Error Bookmark not defined. Because / Because Of ............................................................................. Error Bookmark not defined. Exercise 32: Using Because /Because Of ............................................... Error Bookmark not defined. Purpose and Result So That ................................................................. Error Bookmark not defined. Cause and Effect So Such ................................................................... Error Bookmark not defined. Exercise 33: Using So / Such ................................................................. Error Bookmark not defined. Practice Test 2 ................................................................................................ Error Bookmark not defined. PART III: ADVANCED ................................................................................ Error Bookmark not defined. 26. MODAL AUXILIARY VERBS – PART II ................................... Error Bookmark not defined. Must ........................................................................................................ Error Bookmark not defined. Have To .................................................................................................. Error Bookmark not defined. Used To ................................................................................................... Error Bookmark not defined. Exercise 34: Using Used To ................................................................... Error Bookmark not defined.

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9 Would Like .............................................................................................. Error Bookmark not defined. Would Rather .......................................................................................... Error Bookmark not defined. Exercise 35: Using Would Rather .......................................................... Error Bookmark not defined. As If / As Though .................................................................................... Error Bookmark not defined. Hope / Wish ............................................................................................ Error Bookmark not defined. Exercise 36: Using Wish / Hope ............................................................. Error Bookmark not defined. 27. MODAL + PRESENT PERFECT PERFECTIVE ...................... Error Bookmark not defined. Could / May / Might + Present Perfect Perfective ............................... Error Bookmark not defined. Should + Present Perfect Perfective ..................................................... Error Bookmark not defined. Must + Past Perfect Perfective ............................................................. Error Bookmark not defined. Exercise 37: Using Should / Must .......................................................... Error Bookmark not defined. 28. PASSIVE VOICE ........................................................................... Error Bookmark not defined. Exercise 38: Passive Voice ..................................................................... Error Bookmark not defined. 29. OTHER USES OF THAT .............................................................. Error Bookmark not defined. Optional That .......................................................................................... Error Bookmark not defined. Obligatory That ...................................................................................... Error Bookmark not defined. That with Noun Phrase Clauses .............................................................. Error Bookmark not defined. 30. ENOUGH WITH NOUNS ADJECTIVES AND AVERBS ......... Error Bookmark not defined. Exercise 39: Using Enough .................................................................... Error Bookmark not defined. 31. SUBJUNCTIVE ............................................................................. Error Bookmark not defined. Exercise 40: Using Subjunctives ............................................................ Error Bookmark not defined. 32. INCLUSIVES ................................................................................. Error Bookmark not defined. Not Only. . .But Also ............................................................................... Error Bookmark not defined. Both . . .And ............................................................................................ Error Bookmark not defined. As Well As ............................................................................................... Error Bookmark not defined. Exercise 41: Using Inclusives ................................................................ Error Bookmark not defined. 33. CLAUSES OF CONCESSION ...................................................... Error Bookmark not defined.

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10 Despite / In Spite Of ............................................................................... Error Bookmark not defined. Although / Even Though / Though .......................................................... Error Bookmark not defined. Exercise 42: Using Clauses of Concession............................................. Error Bookmark not defined. 34. VAGUE PRONOUN REFERENCES ............................................ Error Bookmark not defined. Exercise 43: Identifying Vague Pronoun References ............................. Error Bookmark not defined. 35. DANGLING MODIFIERS ............................................................ Error Bookmark not defined. Exercise 44: Correcting Sentences with Dangling Modifiers ................. Error Bookmark not defined. 36. SENTENCE FRAGMENTS .......................................................... Error Bookmark not defined. 37. RUN-ON SENTENCES ................................................................. Error Bookmark not defined. Practice Test 3 ................................................................................................ Error Bookmark not defined. PART IV: PUNCTUATION .......................................................................... Error Bookmark not defined. 38. APOSTROPHE .............................................................................. Error Bookmark not defined. Possession ............................................................................................... Error Bookmark not defined. Contractions ............................................................................................ Error Bookmark not defined. 39. COMMA ........................................................................................ Error Bookmark not defined. 40. SEMICOLON ................................................................................. Error Bookmark not defined. 41. COLON .......................................................................................... Error Bookmark not defined. 42. DASH ............................................................................................. Error Bookmark not defined. 43. HYPHEN ........................................................................................ Error Bookmark not defined. Practice Test 4 ................................................................................................ Error Bookmark not defined. PART V: REFERENCE ................................................................................. Error Bookmark not defined. 1. LIST OF COMMON PREPOSITIONS ............................................. Error Bookmark not defined. 2. LIST OF IRREGULAR VERBS ........................................................ Error Bookmark not defined. 3. LIST OF COMMON AMERICAN IDIOMS ..................................... Error Bookmark not defined. 4. LIST OF COMMONLY MISUSED/CONFUSED WORDS ............. Error Bookmark not defined. PART VI: ANSWERS TO EXERCISES ................................................................................................. 100

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11 HOW TO USE THIS GUIDE This guide is designed to lead a foreign student from a basic level of English where English is minimally understood through an intermediate level and then through an advanced level. Begin at chapter 1 and work through the guide systematically If you already have some knowledge of English it is still advisable to work through the chapters in this way. If you already know the information in the chapters you will move through them quickly and it is always good to review. If you have a question on another grammar point then utilize the Table of Contents to briefly go to that section and become familiar with what you are seeking to know. Then return to where you were and proceed. Complete all exercises as you come to them. If you are not sure of an answer review the material and work through them again. Don’t just guess When you complete an exercise go to the end of the guide to consult the answers. Try to fully understand why each answer is correct before proceeding. Important lists are found in Part IV. Refer to these as you come to the promptings in the guide. It’s difficult for many people to memorize long lists. However memorizing is not really necessary. If you review the material frequently you will soon come to recognize these words and phrases in daily reading and conversation. It will serve you well to become very familiar with the information in these lists. In Part V a small section is included which covers correct punctuation when writing English. Understanding all aspects of English will help you to grow in the language as well as correctly and efficiently communicate your ideas. RULES Grammar rules are created in order to give structure to the language. Rules reflect the usual behavior of a grammatically constructed pattern. A rule does not necessarily have to behave absolutely the same every time but will behave according to the rule most of the time. What you will learn in this guide is the CORRECT way to read write and speak English. However English is not always spoken or written correctly. This is especially true with conversational English. Often you will hear others conversing in English who will break many of the rules contained within this guide. DO NOT let that discourage or dissuade you from learning English the correct way. Once you become familiar with the correct way of structuring English and gain more practice you can then expand into more free forms of expression.

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12 PART I – BASIC

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13 1. BASIC ENGLISH SENTENCE STRUCTURE Subject The subject is the actor of a sentence in active voice. It is the person or thing that performs or is responsible for the action of the sentence. It usually begins the sentence and precedes the verb. Every sentence in English must have a subject. Commands will not have a visible subject however the subject you is understood. Example: Run quickly You run quickly See more under Commands later in the book. The subject can be a single noun. Cats chase mice. Children like candy. The subject can also be a noun phrase which is a group of words ending with a noun. A noun phrase CANNOT begin with a preposition See more under Prepositions and Prepositional Phrases later in the book. The car is in the garage. That hot red dress looks fabulous. Examples of subjects: Tom likes to go fishing. The English teacher is a very nice person. Susan and Alex went to the movie together. Those boys are good basketball players. We actors are a happy group. SUBJECT VERB COMPLEMENT MODIFIER Darrel wrote a novel last year They rode bicycles to school

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14 Verb The verb follows the subject when the sentence is declarative. A verb normally reveals the action of the sentence. Every sentence in English must have a verb. The verb can be a single word. Mary likes chocolate cake. They play soccer. The verb can also be a verb phrase. A verb phrase contains one or more auxiliary verbs and one main verb. The main verb is always preceded by the auxiliary verbs. See more about verb structure later in the book. Martha has been talking to her new friend. Terry is visiting his aunt today. Examples of verbs and verb phrases: Jerry has returned from lunch. The storm made a lot of noise. George is playing in a tournament tomorrow. I will go to bed soon. Sally was jealous of Lisa’s new dress. Complement Object A complement object provides more information about the verb. Often it consists of a noun or noun phrase and will usually follow the verb in a sentence relaying active voice. A complement object CANNOT begin with a preposition See more under Prepositions and Prepositional Phrases later in the book. A complement object answers the question what or whom Examples of complements: Jack threw the stone far. What did Jack throw The hungry bird ate a worm. What did the bird eat He called Janice after the party. Whom did he call She was chewing gum in class. What was she chewing The ball hit Mike during the game last night. Whom did the ball hit

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15 Modifier A modifier tells the time place or manner of action. The modifier usually follows the complement. Not every sentence requires a modifier. Prepositional phrases are commonly used as modifiers See more under Prepositions and Prepositional Phrases later in the book. Examples of prepositional phrases: under the house after breakfast in the morning Adverbs and adverbial phrases are also used as modifiers or modifiers of time. A modifier of time will usually come last when more than one modifier is used. Examples of adverbs and adverbial phrases: yesterday quickly last semester overhead quite awful A modifier answers the question of where When or how Examples of modifiers: She is earning her degree at Cornell University. Where is she earning her degree John fell down the stairs Where did John fall yesterday. When did John fall The cheetah was running quite fast. How was the cheetah running We have an appointment at ten o’clock tomorrow. When do we have an appointment The soldier fired the gun repeatedly. How did the soldier fire the gun Exercise 1: Identifying Subject Verb Complement and Modifier Mark the subject verb complement and modifier in the following sentences. Use an “S” for subject “V” for verb “C” for complement and “M” for modifier. NOTE: Remember that not all sentences have a complement or modifier. Also some sentences can have more than one modifier. Examples: Juan / is eating / tacos / at the new restaurant. S V C M The girls / are talking / to the boys. S V C Madonna / is performing / tonight. S V M

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16 1. Jerry opened his present. 2. Mr. Johnson drinks coffee every morning. 3. Birds fly. 4. The dog chased the cat up the tree. 5. The wind blew violently. 6. Jimmy scored a goal at the soccer match last Saturday. 7. They ran inside quickly. 8. Bill George and Alice bought CDs at the music store today. 9. The barrel rolled down the hill. 10. Terry is watching television.

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17 2. NOUNS A noun can be a person place or thing. Nouns can be the actor of a sentence as the subject a receiver of the action as the object/complement or contained in a prepositional phrase to add more information to the idea of the sentence. The Noun Phrase A noun phrase is a group of words that ends with a noun and can contain determiners a an the these etc adjectives and adverbs. Both subjects and complements often consist of noun phrases. A prepositional phrase is NOT considered a noun phrase. Count and Non-Count Nouns A noun that can be counted is called a count noun. chair – one chair two chairs three chairs… boy – one boy two boys three boys… dog – one dog two dogs three dogs… A noun that cannot be counted is called a non-count noun. coffee – you cannot say: one coffee two coffees etc. However you can make some non-count nouns countable by placing them into a countable container. Can of coffee – one can of coffee two cans of coffee…

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18 The following chart gives some common non-count nouns and their groupings. Some common irregular count nouns are listed below. Exercise 2: Identifying Count and Non-Count Nouns Identify the following nouns as countable or non-countable by placing a “C” after countable nouns and a “N” after non-countable nouns. Examples: radio C algebra N minute clothing canyon gas smoke food eye bus spoon advice milk math 1. WHOLE GROUPS CONSISTING OF SIMILAR ITEMS: jewelry traffic clothing furniture luggage scenery mail makeup money cash food fruit equipment etc. 2. FLUIDS: water blood oil tea milk gasoline soup etc 3. SOLIDS: wood meat bread butter ice gold silver glass wool paper iron etc. 4. GASES: air smoke pollution nitrogen oxygen steam etc. 5. PARTICLES: sand salt sugar flour dust corn wheat grass hair chalk dirt etc. 6. ABSTRACTIONS: advice beauty courage education energy fun grammar health help homework information intelligence knowledge luck music news peace progress slang sleep space time truth vocabulary wealth work etc. 7. LANGUAGES: Chinese English German Spanish etc. 8. FIELDS OF STUDY: chemistry history literature mathematics etc. 9. RECREATIONAL SPORTS: baseball chess football poker soccer tennis etc. 10. ACTIVITIES used as gerunds: driving fishing hiking studying swimming etc. 11. NATURAL OCCURANCES: darkness electricity fire fog gravity hail heat humidity light lightning rain snow sunshine thunder weather wind etc. child children man men person people woman women foot feet mouse mice tooth teeth

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19 Articles: A And An A or an only precede singular count nouns and refer to one thing. Either is used for a general statement or to introduce a new subject that has not been mentioned before. A leopard has spots. in general – speaking of all leopards I talked to a girl today. We are introducing this subject. We don’t know which girl. A is used with words that begin with a consonant sound. An is used with words that begin with a vowel sound. a car an elephant Some words can be confusing because the pronunciation is different from the spelling. Listening to the sound will help determine which article is used. Words such as union uniform university and European eucalyptus eulogy have a long “u” sound which is the same sound as y in yellow or yard. Therefore they are considered to have a consonant sound and a is used before these words. A yellow dog ran past us. A uniform is required for school. A yard consists of three feet. I went to school with a European. Some words have a silent first letter so the correct article depends on the heard sound. Words such as hot home and head have a pronounced “h” consonant sound and thus begin with a. However words such as honor hour and herb have a silent “h” and are considered to have a vowel sound. It is a hot day. It was an honor to meet the president. Articles: The Use the when you know or assume that the listener is familiar with the same person place or thing that you are talking about. The earth is a beautiful planet. There is only one earth. The teacher asked me a question. It is assumed the listener knows your teacher. Use the with non-count nouns only when you are speaking specifically. If you are speaking in general no article is used. Water is wet. general The water in the stream is cold. specific water located in the stream The same rule applies for plural count nouns. Specific plural count nouns use the while general plural count nouns do not. I like apples. all apples

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20 The apples on the tree are not ripe. specific apples on the tree USE The WITH DON’T USE The WITH oceans seas rivers gulfs plural lakes singular lakes the Pacific Ocean the Caspian Sea the Lake Titicaca Lake Michigan Mississippi River the Gulf of Mexico the Finger Lakes mountains mounts the Smoky Mountains the Andes Mount Rushmore Mount St. Helens sun moon earth planets constellations the sun the moon the earth Mercury Saturn Gemini Leo schools colleges universities when the schools colleges universities when the phrase begins with one of these words phrase begins with a proper noun the School of Fine Arts the University of Arizona University Bardstown Community Southern California College

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21 USE The WITH DON’T USE The WITH ordinal numbers before nouns cardinal numbers after nouns the First Amendment the third floor Apollo One floor three wars except world wars the Vietnam War the War of 1812 World War One World War Two certain countries or groups of countries with countries preceded by New or an adjective more than one word except Great Britain such as a direction the United States the United Kingdom the New Zealand South Africa North Korea United Arab Emirates one word countries China Australia Germany Italy continents Asia North America South America states Kentucky Alabama Utah California historical documents the Constitution the Bill of Rights sports baseball volleyball football soccer abstract nouns intelligence beauty happiness general areas of subject matter science algebra social studies holidays New Years Christmas Thanksgiving

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22 Exercise 3: Using Articles Fill in the blanks of the following sentences using a an the or Ø if no article is needed. 1. John is wearing _______ baseball cap today. 2. _______ chair is _______ useful piece of furniture. 3. _______ chairs in _______ living room are antiques. 4. She cried when she peeled _______ onion. 5. _______ women like to wear _______ jewelry. 6. _______ jewelry that my sister wears is made of _______ gold. 7. When you look at _______ moon you can see _______ face. 8. _______ hour ago I saw _______ eagle flying overhead. 9. _______ life can be fun but sometimes there are _______ problems. 10. _______ last time I saw ________ bear I was travelling in _______ Europe. Other / Another Often correctly using the word other can be confusing. The word another and other are not specific while the other is specific. If the subject is understood then other can be used as a pronoun. If the understood noun is a plural count noun then other becomes others. Note: other CANNOT be plural if followed by a noun. Look at the following examples. This knife is dull. Please give me another. an + other + singular noun any other knife – not specific This knife is dull. Please give me the other. the other + singular noun the only other option – specific This cake is delicious. Other cakes are delicious also. OR This cake is delicious. Others are delicious also. other + plural noun other cakes: not specific Since the subject is understood from the first sentence you can omit the plural noun “cakes” in the second sentence and pluralize other to others. These apples are bad. I want the other apples. OR These apples are bad. I want the others.

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23 the other + plural noun other apples: specific Since the subject is understood from the first sentence you can omit the plural noun “apples” in the second sentence and pluralize the other to the others. You can also substitute other + one for a singular noun and other + ones for a plural noun. This knife is dull. Please give me another one. not specific This knife is dull. Please give me the other one. specific This cake is delicious. Other ones are delicious also. not specific These apples are bad. I want the other ones. specific Exercise 4: Using Other / Another Fill in the blanks of the following sentences with the correct form of other or another. 1. I received two gifts for my birthday. One was from my parents. _______________ one was from my brother. 2. This pie is fantastic Can I have __________________ piece 3. These pants don’t fit well. Let me try ____________________ ones. 4. I have a large stamp collection. The stamps in this section are from the United States. __________________ are from ________________ places in the world. 5. Joshua likes to wear Nike shoes. He won’t wear any ________________ brand. 6. I’m almost finished with my homework. I just need ________________ ten minutes. 7. John Melissa and I are going to the movies. ___________________ are going to the Craft Fair. 8. This house is brand new. _____________________ house is really old. 9. We like to swim. _________________ like to surf and still ________________ like to ski. 10. You can buy this shirt and ___________________ one. Which ________________ would you like

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24 Determiners of Quantity Words that determine quantity are used to show how much of something to which you are referring. Some expressions of quantity are only used with count nouns some are only used with non count nouns and others are used with both. Study the chart below. Consider the sentence structure to determine whether a singular or plural verb is used with a determiner of quantity. Sentences that begin with words that indicates portions such as: percent fraction part majority some all none remainder etc. look at the noun of the prepositional phrase object of the preposition in order to determine whether or not to use a singular or plural verb. RULE: If the object of the preposition is singular use a singular verb. If the object of the preposition is plural use a plural verb. Example 1: Half of the dresses are dirty. In this sentence half is the subject and of the dresses is a prepositional phrase which gives reference to what half is referring. In this case the countable noun dresses requires a plural verb. Example 2: Determiners of Quantity With Count Nouns With Non Count Nouns one each every one ball each ball every ball Ø Ø Ø two three etc. both a couple of a few several many a number of two balls both balls a couple of balls a few balls several balls many balls a number of balls Ø Ø Ø Ø Ø Ø Ø no some/any a lot of/lots of plenty of most all no balls some/any balls a lot of/lots of balls plenty of balls most balls all balls no water some/any water a lot of/lots of water plenty of water most water all water a little much a great deal of Ø Ø Ø a little water much water a great deal of water

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25 Half of the sugar is gone. In this sentence half is the subject but the non-countable noun sugar in the modifying prepositional phrase requires a singular verb. More examples: Two-thirds of the work is complete. Two-thirds of the workers are angry. A high percentage of the population is educated. A high percentage of the people are happy. The majority of Congress has voted for the bill. The majority of Senators have voted favorably. Also when the subject is a sum of money or a period of time a singular verb is used. Fifteen dollars is a high price to pay for entering the movies. Five years is the maximum sentence for that offense. Exercise 5: Determining Quantity Cross out the words that CANNOT be used to complete each sentence correctly. An example is given in sentence number two. 1. Joan drank __________ sodas. 2. Randy drank _________ coffee. a. five a. five b. a few b. a few c. hardly any c. hardly any d. several d. several e. no e. no f. a lot of f. a lot of g. a great deal of g. a great deal of h. too much h. too much i. some i. some j. a number of j. a number of k. too many k. too many l. a little l. a little

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26 Collective Nouns Some nouns reflect a group of people or animals and are usually singular. Following are examples of some common collective nouns. Our class is going on a field trip today. The pack of dogs was chasing the deer. The public is against the war. Our team is playing the champions next week. Nouns That Are Always Plural Some nouns are always plural and cannot be singular unless used in the phrase “a pair of _________”. My favorite jeans are in the washer. This pair of jeans needs to be washed. My eyeglasses are new. This pair of eyeglasses is new. Nouns That Function As Adjectives Many nouns can function as adjectives when they are coupled with other nouns. The first noun acts to describe the second noun. Nouns which function as adjectives are always singular even when they modify a plural noun. The car doors have all been replaced. We hurried to get to the train station. This gold coin is worth a lot. When number noun combinations are used they are always hyphenated. The hike was eight hours to the temple. It was an eight-hour hike to the temple. These tickets cost forty dollars. These are forty-dollar tickets. army choir Congress government minority police audience class crew group orchestra public band clump family herd organization set bunch colony flock jury pack staff bundle committee gang majority pair team eyeglasses pants scissors slacks tongs binoculars jeans pliers shorts trousers tweezers goggles

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27 3. VERBS Verbs indicate the action of the actors nouns in a sentence and can be single or can be verb phrases that contain auxiliaries which always precede the main verb. Verb forms reveal Past Present or Future tenses and are used in their infinitive form or are changed to a Simple Continuous or Perfect form. Study the following Regular Verb Conjugation Chart and Verb Tense Usage Chart and refer back to them as you work through the verb section. Regular Verb Conjugation Chart Study the following chart. Notice how the verb changes in its simple form depending on the noun pronouns are used in the chart and how the auxiliary verb changes in the continuous and perfect form of the verb phrase. This same pattern works for all regular verbs. NOTE: Changes in the verb forms are in bold. NOTE: A list of irregular verbs can be found at the end of the book. Present Past Future Simple I work worked will work he she it works worked will work we they work worked will work Continuous I am working was working will be working he she it is working was working will be working we they are working were working will be working Perfect I have worked had worked will have worked he she it has worked had worked will have worked we they have worked had worked will have worked

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28 Verb Tense Usage Chart Study the following chart which shows the use of each verb tense with an example. NOTE: Refer to the Perfect Continuous forms of the verb later in the book. Present Simple The present simple tense generally expresses events or situations that exist usually always or habitually. They have existed in the past exist now in the present and will probably exist in the future. Ms Bailey teaches English. Susie brushes her teeth every day. Present Simple Timeline X Past Now Future Tense Verb to work Use Example Present Simple I work Regular activities I work in a large building. Present Continuous I am working Continuous action present time I am working at the moment. Present Perfect I have played Finished part of a continuous action I have worked nine hours today. Simple Completed actions in an unfinished I have worked several weekends this month. period of time Recent events no time mentioned I have just started. Past action with a result in present I have worked long hours so I need a vacation. Experiences no time mentioned I have worked on many accounts. Present Perfect I have been playing Actions begun in the past which I have been working since 6 a.m. Continuous continue to present Past Simple I worked Finished actions at a specific time I worked last Saturday. in the past Past Continuous I was working Continuous actions at a specific I was working when lunch arrived. time in the past Past Perfect Simple I had worked Actions before a specific time in I had worked a lot before lunch arrived. the past Past Perfect I had been working Past continuous action I had been working for another company. Continuous Future Simple I will work Predictions I will work this weekend. Spontaneous decisions or offers I will work for you tomorrow. Future Continuous I will be working Future continuous actions I will be working when the owner arrives. Future Perfect I will have worked Completed future action I will have worked here 3 years tomorrow. Future Perfect I will have been Continuous future action I will have been working 12 hours by the time Continuous working completed at a given time I leave tonight.

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29 Present simple is used to express a state or condition stative or habitual action. Examples of present simple tense: Fresh bread smells wonderful. stative John takes the bus to school usually. habitual Mary always sings in the church choir. habitual I understand what you’re saying. stative My new car runs great stative Present Continuous Progressive The present continuous tense expresses an action which began in the past is in progress now and will probably continue into the future. Study the following formula and timeline for present continuous use. The present continuous uses present conjugated forms of the auxiliary verb to be with the “ing” form of the action verb. Ms. Bailey is teaching right now. She will probably continue teaching. Examples of present continuous tense: The boys are playing ball. I am riding my bike. She is watching the ball game. Tom is chewing gum. The students are calling for a boycott. Present Continuous Timeline X X Past Now Future am subject + is + verb + ing. . . are

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30 Present continuous is also commonly used in English to express a continuous action in the future by adding a time word to the sentence. My plane is leaving tomorrow. My uncle is arriving from Germany at 7:00 p.m. Next year we are camping in the mountains. Present Perfect The present perfect tense expresses an action that occurs before another time or event. The present perfect tense uses the present conjugated forms of the auxiliary verb to have with the past participle form of the action verb. Study the following formula and timeline for present continuous use. The boss has left the office. He left sometime before now. Examples of present perfect: I have seen the movie already. Sally has lost her favorite ring. Tom and Hank have ridden horses before. We have won the championship The rabbit has eaten all its food. Exercise 6: Using the Present Tense Forms of Verbs Fill in the blanks with the correct present tense form of the verb in parentheses. NOTE: You may need to consult the irregular verb list at the end of the book. 1. John __________________ sleep on the couch at the moment. 2. My dad always __________________ sit in that chair. 3. I ____________________ like to go to the movies on the weekends. Present Perfect Timeline X X left Past Now Future subject + has + verb in past participle. . . have

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31 4. The children ____________________ play at the neighbor’s house today. 5. The company _____________________ build a new store. 6. Water ___________________ wash away dirt. 7. My little brother ____________________ eat all the candy It’s all gone 8. Jane ___________________ read her favorite book now. 9. Those boys ____________________ scare that cat many times before. 10. My wife and I ____________________ cry when we watch sad movies. Past Simple The past simple tense is an action that began and ended at one particular time in the past. It snowed yesterday. Examples of past simple tense: The pack of dogs ran through the woods. Mike fell on the slippery ice. Molly and Rita embraced at the airport. The mountain lion attacked the herd of cattle during the night. George ate all his dinner. Past Continuous Progressive The past continuous tense normally links an action in the past with another past action. The first past action continues through the second past action. Study the following timeline for past continuous use. The past continuous uses present conjugated forms of the auxiliary verb to be with the “ing” form of the action verb. Past Simple Timeline X Past Now Future

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32 Jack was eating when I arrived. Jack started to eat before I arrived. He continued eating after I arrived. Both actions are in the past. There are different sentence structure formulas depending on variations in past continuous use. Study the following examples:  The following formula is used when an action was taking place in the past and was interrupted by another action. OR Jerry was painting a picture when we arrived at his house. OR When we arrived at his house Jerry was painting a picture. Alfred Ann and I were playing cards when the lights went out. OR When the lights went out Alfred Ann and I were playing cards.  The following formula is used when two actions occur at the same time in the past. OR Past Continuous Timeline Eat Arrive X X Past Now Future subject + past continuous + when + subject + simple past tense. . . when + subject + simple past tense + subject + past progressive. . . subject + past continuous + while + subject + past continuous. . . while + subject + past continuous + subject + past continuous. . .

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33 My mother was gardening while my father was mowing the lawn. OR While my father was mowing the lawn my mother was gardening. The children were crying while the clowns were performing. OR While the clowns were performing the children were crying. NOTE: The following sentence structure is also possible but is not commonly used. I fed our cat while my sister was taking a nap.  Past continuous can also be used by itself to indicate that something was occurring at a specific time in the past. The moon was shining brightly last night. The girls were laughing at his joke yesterday in class. Past Perfect The past perfect tense links an action which was started and finished before another past action occurred. Study the following formula and timeline for past perfect: The past perfect tense uses the past conjugated form of the auxiliary verb to have with the past participle form of the action verb. Jack had eaten by the time I arrived. Jack started and finished eating by Past Perfect Timeline X X eat arrive Past Now Future subject + was + verb + ing. . . were subject + simple past + while + subject + past continuous. . . subject + had + verb in past participle. . .

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34 the time I arrived. Both actions are in the past. The past perfect tense is normally used with words such as before when after since by the time etc. Study the following formulas for past perfect used with these words. As in the first example sentences for these formulas can begin with the second clause. Just remember to add a comma between the clauses when doing so. OR The students had studied before they took the test. OR Before they took the test the students had studied. I had finished mowing when the storm came. OR When the storm came I had finished mowing. Jerrod left school after he had taken his exams. OR After he had taken his exams Jerrod left school. Six years had passed since I last saw her. OR Since I last saw her six years had passed. Joan had already performed by the time her parents arrived. OR By the time her parents arrived Joan had already performed. before subject + past perfect + when + subject + simple past after since by the time before when + subject + simple past + subject + past perfect after since by the time

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35 Exercise 7: Using the Past Tense Forms of Verbs Fill in the blanks with the correct past tense form of the verb in parentheses. NOTE: You may need to consult the irregular verb list at the end of the book. 1. She ___________________ talk on the phone when the door bell rang. 2. Yesterday I ___________________ catch a big fish on our camping trip. 3. Our group ___________________ hike the full length of the Inca Trail last week. 4. The bear ___________________ climb a tree before the dogs got there. 5. The sky diver __________________ fall very fast when the parachute opened. 6. My grandparents __________________ arrive before I returned from school. 7. I ___________________ read that story last year in literature class. 8. Mary __________________ watch a movie when her aunt called from New York. 9. Jason __________________ fish in the pond when he saw a big snake. 10. The plumber __________________ find the source of the water leak. Future Simple The future simple tense is an action which occurs at one particular time in the future. The future simple tense uses the modal auxiliary verb will with the infinitive form of the action verb. It will snow tomorrow. Examples of future simple tense: 1. I will go to the store after lunch. 2. Randy will travel to Europe this summer. 3. Many birds will migrate south for the winter. Future Simple Timeline X Past Now Future

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36 Future Continuous Progressive The future continuous tense is an action that will have already started by the time another action occurs and will probably continue after. The future continuous tense is normally used with words such as before when after since by the time etc. The future continuous tense uses the modal auxiliary verb will + the verb be + the “ing” form of the action verb. Jack will be eating when I arrive. Jack will start to eat before I arrive and will probably continue eating afterwards. Both actions are in the future. Examples of future continuous tense: 1. It will be raining when our plane lands in London. 2. Madonna will be signing autographs after the concert. 3. Joe will be participating in the competition this summer. Future Perfect The future perfect tense is a future action that has started and finished before another future action occurs. The future perfect tense is normally used with words such as before when after since by the time etc. The future perfect tense uses modal auxiliary verb will + the verb be + the past participle form of the action verb. Sally will have eaten when Sue arrives. Sally starts and finishes eating by the time Sue arrives. Both actions are in the future. Examples of the future perfect tense: 1. The pirates will have buried the treasure by the time the ships arrive. 2. John will have scored 40 points by the end of the game. 3. My parents will have had three children after this baby is born. Future Continuous Timeline X X Past Now Future Future Perfect Timeline X X eats arrives Past Now Future

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37 Exercise 8: Using the Future Tense of Verbs Fill in the blanks with the correct future tense form of the verb in parentheses. NOTE: You may need to consult the irregular verb list at the end of the book. 1. Steve Lucy and I _________________ go to Harvard University this fall. 2. I ___________________ start classes by the time Rachel returns from Europe. 3. Rachel ___________________ join me in class when she returns. 4. I __________________ think about Rachel until she returns safely. 5. My cat ___________________ cry when I get home because she is hungry. 6. Our dog Rufus __________________ travel with us this summer. 7. My letter ___________________ arrive to Rita by the time I get there. 8. The pilot said that it ___________________ rain when we arrive in Brazil. 9. My sister ___________________ marry this coming June. 10. Tom ___________________ eat three hamburgers when he finishes this one. The Perfect Continuous Progressive Tense The perfect continuous tense are used to express the duration between two actions or events. Often an expression of time is used with perfect continuous tenses. Study the conjugation chart below. NOTE: Changes in the verb forms are in bold. Present Perfect Continuous Progressive The present perfect continuous tense is an event in progress which started in the past and continues to the present. It will probably continue into the future. Study the following formula and timeline for present perfect continuous progressive: Present Past Future I have been studying had been studying will have been studying he she it has been studying had been studying will have been studying we they have been studying had been studying will have been studying

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38 Sue has been studying for two hours. Sue started studying and continues to study up to the present. She will probably continue to study. NOTE: The present perfect continuous tense is normally used with words such as before when after since by the time etc. Examples of present perfect continuous tense: 1. I have been working on the car engine since this morning. 2. Ruth has been babysitting the neighbor’s kids for six hours. 3. The carnival employees have been working since 5 a.m. this morning. Past Perfect Continuous Progressive The past perfect continuous tense is an event that was in progress when another past event occurred. Study the following formula and timeline for past perfect continuous progressive: Sue had been studying for two hours before her friend arrived. Sue had started and finished studying before her friend arrived. NOTE: The past perfect continuous tense is normally used with words such as before when after since by the time etc. Examples of past perfect continuous tense: Present Perfect Continuous Timeline X X 2 hours Past Now Future Past Perfect Continuous Timeline X X 2 hours Past Now Future subject + has + been + verb + ing. . . have subject + had + been + verb + ing. . .

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39 1. He had been drinking when the accident occurred. 2. Sarah had been exercising before the surgery. 3. The horses had been ridden many times before the ranch was sold. Future Perfect Continuous Progressive The future perfect continuous tense reflects an event that will have happened before another future event occurs. Study the following formula and timeline for future perfect continuous progressive: Sue will have been studying for two hours when her friend arrives. Sue starts and finishes studying before her friend arrives. Both actions are in the future. NOTE: The future perfect continuous tense is normally used with words such as before when after since by the time etc. Examples of future perfect continuous tense: 1. Larry will have been exercising for two hours before we go to dinner. 2. My kids will have been playing outside all afternoon by the time night falls. 3. We will have been walking for three hours before the first break. Exercise 9: Using the Perfect Continuous Tense of Verbs Fill in the blanks with the correct perfect continuous tense form of the verb in parentheses. 1. John _____________________ hunt for six hours when the sun goes down. 2. Sally and Mary _____________________ play together for three hours. 3. Our fans _____________________ cheer until the other team scored. 4. Ralph and I _____________________ shop all day. 5. The truck _____________________ make bad noises until we got it fixed. 6. All the turkey _____________________ eat by the time we arrive. Future Perfect Continuous Timeline X X 2 hours Past Now Future subject + will + have + been + verb + ing. . .

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40 4. LINKING VERBS A verb that can be immediately followed by an adjective is called a linking verb. The adjective that follows the verb describes the subject of the sentence. The verb “links” the adjective to the subject it describes. Common verbs which are followed by an adjective are given below. NOTE: The verb be can also be used as an auxiliary is watching to link a noun with the main subject Jack is a professional or to link a prepositional phrase to the main subject Jack is at the office. It is only considered a linking verb when it is used to link an adjective to the main subject Jack is intelligent. Examples of linking verbs: This pie tastes delicious. Jeff became frightened when he saw the snake. The weather turned cold overnight. Ellen feels confident about the competition. Grandma’s breakfast smells delicious.  be  feel look smell sound taste  appear seem  become also the verbs get turn and grow when they mean “become”

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41 5. CONTINUOUS VERSUS NON-CONTINUOUS VERBS As we have seen the continuous progressive tense is used to describe an action that is occurring at a particular point in time it is an action in progress. However there are some exceptions of when to use the continuous tense with certain verbs. Non-Continuous Verbs The following verbs are used in a non-continuous form. There are several categories in which these verbs are categorized. Mental and Emotional States believe like recognize dislike love remember doubt hate suppose imagine prefer understand know realize want Examples: CORRECT: He doubts she is sincere. INCORRECT: He is doubting she is sincere. CORRECT: Sarah hates her new hair style. INCORRECT: Sarah is hating her new hair style. CORRECT: Jonathon understands the assignment. INCORRECT: Jonathon is understanding the assignment. Sense appear seem taste hear smell see sound Examples: CORRECT: The answer appears correct. INCORRECT: The answer is appearing correct. CORRECT: The roast smells good. INCORRECT: The roast is smelling good. CORRECT: The band sounds great. INCORRECT: The band is sounding great.

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42 Communication agree mean astonish please deny promise disagree satisfy impress surprise Examples: CORRECT: Margaret agrees with Michael. INCORRECT: Margaret is agreeing with Michael. CORRECT: The boy impresses his coach. INCORRECT: The boy is impressing his coach. CORRECT: George promises to finish his homework. INCORRECT: George is promising to finish his homework. Other States belong deserve matter concern fit need consist include owe contain involve own cost lack possess depend Examples: CORRECT: He said it depends on how late he works. INCORRECT: He said it is depending on how late he works. CORRECT: The project involves a lot of work. INCORRECT: The project is involving a lot of work. CORRECT: The length of the show doesn’t matter. INCORRECT: The length of the show isn’t mattering.

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43 Mixed Verb Forms There are also some verbs which can be used both in a continuous and non-continuous form. It depends on the meaning of the verb as to which form is used. Following are some of the most important verbs to consider: Continuous Meanings Feel “to physically feel” – I’m feeling tired today. See “to visit” – Joe is seeing his doctor. Think “to use the brain” – We are thinking deeply about the question. Appear “to be on stage/perform” – Madonna is appearing at the Waldorf stadium tonight. Look “to stare at” – She is looking at me intently. Taste “to use the mouth” – I’m tasting my mom’s apple pie. Non-continuous Meanings Feel “to have an opinion” – Mary feels she should be able to go on the trip also. See “to understand” – I see what you’re saying. Think “to have an opinion” – I think you should visit your parents. Appear “to look like” – The project appears to be difficult. Look “to seem” – This contest looks easy. Taste “to have a taste” – Her muffins taste great

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44 6. COMMON DISTINGUISHMENTS There + Be When using the combination of there + be there is called an “expletive”. It has no meaning as a vocabulary word. It simply introduces the idea that something exists in a particular place. When beginning a sentence with this combination the subject follows the verb. NOTE: There is never considered the subject of the sentence. There is a clean towel in the linen closet. Verb subject expression of place There are six kittens under my bed. Verb subject expression of place There has been a fire at the warehouse. Verb subject expression of place Sometimes the expression of place is omitted when the meaning is clear. There are seven continents. The implied expression of place is clearly in the world. Beginning a Sentence with Here or There When a sentence begins with here or there the subject is located after the verb. NOTE: Here or there is NEVER considered the subject of the sentence. Examples: Here was the accident. verb subject There are the girls. verb subject Here is the definition of the word. There was a loud explosion. Say / Tell Say and tell both mean to communicate verbally with someone but they are usually used differently. Normally you say something and you tell someone something. There + be + subject + expression of place

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45 You say something You tell someone something Jeff said that he was tired. Jeff told Sam that he was tired. Jennifer says you have a new job. Jennifer tells me you have a new job. Patricia said “I love you.” Patricia told John that she loves him. Tell uses an object directly following. Bob told the boss that he wasn’t working tomorrow. Janice told me that she loves John. Say uses the word “to” or “that” before the object. Bob said to the boss that he wasn’t working tomorrow. Janice said to me that she loves John. Bob said that he wasn’t working tomorrow. Janice said that she loves John. When using direct speech say is normally used. Amanda said “Sweetheart I’m going to work now.” “John that’s a beautiful car” George said. Sometimes tell is used in direct speech if it is an instruction or information. Notice the object directly after tell as described above. Rebecca told her assistant “Open the door for the caterer.” He told me “This is the key to the front door.” Say and tell cannot be used with reported questions. Ask or a similar verb must be used. Roy asked if I had ever been to Miami. Mary’s mother asked what I wanted to eat. The policeman asked me where I lived. He asked if she wanted to leave. Tell + object + infinitive is used to give orders or advice. The teacher told the child to sit down. She told me to wait in the lobby. Tell Bill to have a great trip to Europe. Exercise 10: Using Say and Tell Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the verb say or tell. 1. Jason _____________ his friend to shut up. 2. Jane _____________ that she is feeling sick.

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46 3. My English teacher ______________ I’m learning quickly. 4. The driver _____________ “I’ll pick you up at the airport.” 5. Please ______________ me where to find the washing detergent. 6. The angry mother ____________ “ I ___________ you not to do that” 7. I heard Peter _____________ that he was going out with Becky tonight. 8. The security guard ______________ me to get off the stage. 9. _______________ me the story again 10. Will you ______________ John to meet me after work Know / Know How The verb know when used by itself is usually followed by a noun a prepositional phrase or a sentence. She knew the answer. Everyone knows about gravity. Jason knew that he was going to be in trouble. Know how is used to indicate a skill or ability to do something. This form is followed by the infinitive form of a verb. Jim knows how to make cool inventions. Monkeys know how to use primitive tools. Do you know how to make fudge brownies Exercise 11: Using Know and Know How Fill in the blanks with the correct form of know or know how. 1. The boys ____________________ to catch rabbits with snares. 2. Do you ____________________ to get to the airport from here 3. I didn’t ____________________ that Jenny was pregnant. 4. I am amazed that Jack ____________________ where to go from here. 5. Some primitive tribes ____________________ to perform surgery long ago.

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47 Need / In Need Of Usually when the subject of a sentence is an animate object the verb need is followed by an infinitive verb. Hector needs to get a haircut. We need to leave now. My dog needs to learn new tricks. Usually when the subject of a sentence is an inanimate object the verb need is followed by either a gerund or “ing” verb or the verb to be followed by the past participle of the action verb. The grass needs cutting. OR The grass needs to be cut. The motorcycle needs repairing. OR The motorcycle needs to be repaired. The guest list needs writing. OR The guest list needs to be written. Be aware that there are some exceptions to these rules. Sometimes animate objects follow the second rule. My dog needs to be fed. The baby needs burping. OR The baby needs to be burped. Sometimes inanimate objects follow the first rule. The buzzer needs to ring before we can leave class. The grass needs to grow more before I can cut it. The expression in need of can be used in some cases in place of using the verb need. However because the word need is not a verb in the phrase in need of it must be preceded by the verb be. Darren is in need of a haircut. Darren needs a haircut. The car was in need of new tires. The car needed new tires. The girls were in need of prom dresses. The girls needed prom dresses. Exercise 12: Using Need Fill in the correct form of the verb in parentheses after the verb need. 1. I need ___________________ finish my homework. 2. The bus needs to be ___________________ fill with gas. 3. Mary’s garden needs ___________________ water. 4. The thief needs to be ___________________ punish. 5. Harold will need _____________________ make extra cash for his trip. 6. This problem needs _____________________ solve.

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48 7. Nancy needs _____________________ wash the dishes soon. 8. The crops need to be ______________________ harvest before it rains. 9. Stacy and I need _____________________ move to another apartment. 10. That hole in the road needs ______________________ fill. Like / As The word like is very often misused in conversational English. In written English like is traditionally used as a preposition different from like the verb while as is a conjunction clause connector. Like is used to compare only nouns. i.e. use like to say two things are similar and let the clause that follows tell how they are similar The earth like other planets spins on an axis. Like other planets the earth spins on an axis. As is used to compare clauses. i.e. use as if two actions are similar A globe spins around an axis as does the Earth itself. A few rules of thumb: 1. You should have two verbs in a sentence with an As comparison one verb in a sentence with a Like comparison. 2. Like comparisons work the same way as noun modifiers-make sure the right nouns are touching 3. The GMAT tends to use like mostly at the beginning of sentences. It is tough to put like at the end of a sentence and get the meaning right. A simple rule to follow which will assist in using these two words correctly is that the word like is not closely followed by a verb there is no verb in a prepositional phrase while as is followed by a clause which contains a verb. Example: The new boy acts like a clown. In this sentence like is correctly used as a preposition. The prepositional phrase does not contain a verb. The new boy acts as if he were a clown. In this sentence as is correctly used as a conjunction connector between two clauses. Both clauses contain a verb.

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49 More examples: My sister sings like Mariah Carey. My sister sings as though she were Mariah Carey. My neighbor’s house is like a zoo. My neighbor’s house is as if it were a zoo. NOTE: There is no difference of meaning between as if and as though they can be used interchangeably. Refer to Comparisons for more uses of the connector as. Exercise 13: Using Like / As Complete the following sentences with like or as if / as though. 1. My little brother cries _________________ a baby. 2. My stomach felt ___________________ a train had run through it. 3. Darren appeared ___________________ he needed help on the exam. 4. The Olympic sprinter can run ___________________ the wind during competition. 5. The actor plays the part ___________________ he were the actual character. 6. Margie’s computer is so old that it runs _________________ a turtle. 7. George’s mom is short and fat _________________ my mom. 8. Mr. Brown spoke ___________________ he knew about quantum physics. 9. The winning fans responded ___________________ their team was the greatest. 10. The winning fans responded ___________________ a bunch of crazed maniacs. For more exercises on using Like/As please see: http://gmatclub.com/forum/as-like-98308.html

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50 Between / Among The word between is always used when talking about a distinct relationship of two individual items groups or people. Examples: Sally had to choose between the red and white dresses. Let’s keep this secret between you and me. However between can also be used when talking about a distinct relationship of more than two individual items groups or people Examples: Johnny had to decide between going to Europe buying a new car or staying in college. Business negotiations between the governments of the United States China and South America are going well despite cultural differences. The word among is used when talking about items groups or people in general. Examples: Disease spread among the earthquake survivors. The economic collapse caused panic among investors. Terry was quite popular among his classmates. She was relieved to find a friend among strangers. Business negotiations among governments are going well despite cultural differences. compare this to the above example with between here there is a group of governments rather than a distinct group There is also a difference when using between and among for location. Example: The children played between the fields. The children played among the fields. The word between in the first sentence gives the idea that the children were playing in a location in the middle of two fields or in a central area which is surrounded by fields. The word among in the second sentence gives the idea that the children were playing inside and throughout two or more fields.

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51 Exercise 14: Using Between / Among Complete the following sentences using either between or among. 1. Can you tell the difference __________________ this photo and the other one 2. Joanne found her wallet __________________ the bed and dresser. 3. Walter looked for his dog __________________ the houses of his neighborhood. 4. Charles and Sandra took a romantic walk ________________ the park fountains. 5. John felt at home __________________ his classmates at the school reunion. 6. The children couldn’t decide _________________ chocolate or vanilla ice cream. 7. Ms. Jennings was the most appreciated teacher ________________ her colleagues. 8. Our group was the noisiest ________________ all the fans that cheered at the game. 9. Walking ________________ the veterans’ graves made my grandfather very sad. 10. Could you get my keys laying on the table ________________ the couch and chair

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52 7. PROPER USE OF PROBLEM VERBS It can be quite confusing to distinguish which correct verb to use when it comes to raise/rise set/sit or lay/lie. Raise set and lay are transitive verbs and are followed by an object. Rise sit and lie are intransitive verbs and are NOT followed by an object. Study the chart below to understand the correct conjugation and use of these verbs. Exercise 15: Using Raise/Rise Set/Sit and Lay/Lie Underline the correct word in parentheses in the following sentences. 1. Hens lay lie eggs. 2. Janice set sat the table for dinner. 3. Janice set sat at the table for dinner. 4. Mrs. Smith raises rises a garden every year. 5. I laid lay my wallet on top of the dresser. 6. The ability to succeed lies lays within you. 7. The old lady set sat on the bench because she was tired. 8. Hot air raises rises. 9. When I get tired I lay lie down and take a nap. 10. Jennifer raised rose from her seat to pick up her test paper. TRANSITIVE INTRANSITIVE raise raised raised rise rose risen Tony raised his hand. Tony rises early. object set set set sit sat sat Julie set the book on my desk. I sit in the third row. object lay laid laid lie lay lain Julie is laying the book on my desk. John is lying on the floor. Notice the changed spelling object of lie when “ing” is added. NOTE: The verb lie which means “not to tell the truth” is a regular verb. lie lied lied Ruth lied to me about her age.

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53 8. SUBJECT/VERB AGREEMENT PLACEMENT It is important that the subject and verb in a sentence agree in person and number. If the subject is singular then the verb is also usually singular. If the subject is plural then the verb is also usually plural although some exceptions do exist. The professional demonstrates the idea well. singular singular The professionals demonstrate the idea well. plural plural Quite often the verb is separated from the subject which makes them very difficult to identify. Many times the subject and the verb will be separated by a prepositional phrase which has no effect on the verb. The danger with many products is that they harm children. singular subject singular verb Several polls on this particular problem have been taken. plural subject plural verb The war between the opposing forces has caused many people to flee the city. singular subject singular verb The answers to these various questions are final. plural subject plural verb Sometimes other phrases are used to separate the subject from the verb besides prepositional phrases. These phrases do not affect the verb. Here are some examples: Angelina Jolie together with her husband Brad Pitt is arriving to the fund raiser. Singular subject singular verb However if the conjunction and is used instead of the phrase then the verb would be plural. Angelina Jolie and Brad Pitt are arriving to the fund raiser. plural subject plural verb accompanied by along with together with as well as

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54 Exercise 16: Subject/Verb Agreement Underline the correct form of the verb in parentheses in the following sentences. 1. The daughter of my best friend has/have won the spelling competition. 2. The geese that fly south for the winter is/are nesting around the lake. 3. The mayor together with his wife is/are attending the inaugural ball. 4. John and his wife Mary will has/have been married seven year tomorrow. 5. Police cars which are old and outdated is/are being auctioned off today. 6. Earthquakes around the ring of fire has/have been more frequent lately. 7. Joan of Arc who led many Frenchmen in revolution was/were the subject of my report. 8. The jury which has been deliberating the Johnson trial has/have been ordered to make a decision soon. 9. The grandson of the late Mr. Hopkins has/have inherited the billionaire’s estate. 10. Michele along with Sam and Justin is/are coming for my birthday party. For more exercises on Subject/Verb Agreement please see: http://gmatclub.com/forum/search.phpsearch_idtagtag_id131

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55 9. PRONOUNS Five forms of pronouns exist in English. These are subject pronouns complement object pronouns possessive pronouns possessive adjectives and reflexive pronouns. Subject Pronouns Subject pronouns are used in place of subject nouns. A singular pronoun is used to refer to a singular noun and a plural pronoun is used to refer to a plural noun. Examples of subject pronoun use: I am late for work. Subject He owns six dogs and three cats. Subject You and I are traveling to Las Vegas this weekend. Subject They were worried about making the trip in bad weather. Subject A subject pronoun can also be used after the verb be in certain circumstances such as: It was I who threw the ball at you. Notice that I is the subject of “threw the ball” The pronoun we you and us can be directly followed by a noun in order to make it clearer to whom is being referred. We parents are very concerned about our children. SUBJECT PRONOUNS SINGULAR PLURAL I we you you he she it they

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56 Comparative Object Pronouns Comparative or object pronouns are used in place of the object of the verb. Again a singular comparative pronoun is used for a singular comparative noun and a plural comparative pronoun is used for a plural comparative noun. Examples of comparative object pronouns: Sally emailed me. complement The merchant offered him a good deal. complement I wanted to find you so we could go to the movies. complement Jerry told them that he wasn’t playing in the game tomorrow. complement A sentence can also contain variations in structure such as containing prepositions and conjunctions followed by clauses. Identifying these various parts of speech will help in determining the correct usage of pronouns. Alex arrived at the house before her. preposition complement pronoun Alex arrived at the house before she left work. conjunction subject verb clause NOTE: A clause is a full sentence that has been connected to the first sentence by a conjunction connector and therefore also has a subject and verb. COMPARATIVE PRONOUNS SINGULAR PLURAL me us you you him her it them

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57 Possessive Pronouns Possessive pronouns show possession of something by someone. They are not followed by nouns but stand alone. Possessive pronouns replace a noun that is understood by context. NOTE: You do NOT use apostrophes with possessive pronouns. The pronoun its is different from the word it ’s which is a contraction of it is. For information on the correct use of apostrophes see punctuation section. Examples of possessive pronouns: That is my money. That is mine. OR That money is mine. John’s car is slow and my car is fast. His is slow and mine is fast. Our class is boring. Ours is boring. Their dresses are too short. Theirs are too short. Possessive Adjectives Possessive adjectives are pronouns which are used as adjectives and are located directly before another noun. They do not replace a noun but modify it. Examples of possessive adjectives: Carol is reading her book. The bird is grooming its wings. He received his award this morning. My homework is due next Monday. Their names were not called in class. POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS SINGULAR PLURAL mine ours your yours his hers its theirs POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES SINGULAR PLURAL my our your your his her its their

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58 Reflective Pronouns Reflective pronouns indicate that the subject of a sentence is both giving and receiving the action of the verb. They are normally located after the verb. NOTE: English never uses the forms hisself or thierselves. These forms are always incorrect. Notice the difference between the comparative object pronoun and the reflective pronoun in the following sentences. Mary bought her a birthday gift. her another person Mary bought herself a birthday gift. herself Mary Examples of reflective pronouns: The bird bathed itself in the water hole. I hurt myself playing soccer. The boys treated themselves to ice cream after school. We convinced ourselves not to be scared at the haunted house. Protect yourself from the rain by taking an umbrella. Reflexive pronouns can also be used to give emphasis showing that the subject did the action alone you can actually substitute the word alone for the pronoun in this case. When used this way it usually follows the subject but not always. It can also be placed at the end of the sentence often used with the word by by himself. I myself believe in ghosts. You yourself must choose what you will believe. Robert completed the complex puzzle by himself. The girls themselves made all the plans for the party. We ourselves think the new voting law is unfair. You will have to do the work on your car yourself. REFLECTIVE PRONOUNS SINGULAR PLURAL myself ourselves yourself yourselves himself herself itself themselves

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59 Exercise 17: Using Pronouns Underline the correct form of the pronoun or possessive adjective in the following sentences. 1. I think he his him is a great teacher. 2. Jason had to get he him himself ready for school today. 3. That yellow cat over there is me mine my. 4. The snake bit we us our horse on it it’s its leg. 5. Joanne and I me don’t want to go to him his he party. 6. I can’t believe that you your mother doesn’t like our ours. 7. John thought that he his him could do the job by hisself himself. 8. The cute boy speaks to she her every morning as they them themselves walk to school. 9. All of we us boy scouts are going camping this weekend. 10. She Her scolded she her dog for ruining it its it’s new toy. For more exercises on Pronouns please see: http://gmatclub.com/forum/search.phpsearch_idtagtag_id134

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60 Pronouns in Apposition An appositive is a word phrase or clause in apposition – that is it is a word placed next to another word so that the second explains the first. Martha my sister and her boyfriend Doug are in town for the weekend. In this sentence my sister is in apposition to Martha and Doug is in apposition to her boyfriend. In each case the second word or phrase gives more information about the first word or phrase. Martha my sister and her boyfriend Doug A pronoun of apposition must take the form of the noun it is in apposition with whether a subject noun or a comparative object noun. The weightlifters John George and ______ I _______ are ready for the competition. subject pronoun in apposition In the above sentence the pronoun I is in apposition with the subject noun weightlifters therefore a subject pronoun is used. I am one of the weightlifters. subject The labor party chose three officers Sandra Paul and me . object pronoun in apposition In the above sentence the pronoun me is in apposition with the object of the verb officers therefore a complement or object pronoun is used. The labor party chose me as one of their officers. object Indefinite Pronouns An indefinite pronoun refers to something that is not definite specific or exact. Most indefinite pronouns are considered singular and require singular verbs but some require plural verbs and some can be used with either singular or plural verbs depending on the noun. Refer to the following lists of indefinite pronouns for proper verb selection. Note: examples begin with indefinite pronouns to show best which verb form to use. Singular Indefinite Pronouns The following indefinite pronouns are considered singular and must be followed by singular verbs. Another – Another bus is coming soon. Anybody – Anybody knows the answer to that question. Anyone – Anyone has the ability to do this job. Anything – Anything is possible if you believe.

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61 Each – Each of the kittens is different. Either - Either route has a gas station. Everybody – Everybody is happy today. Everyone – Everyone is going on the fieldtrip. Everything – Everything has been ruined by the flood. Less – Less is known about this period of history. Little – Little has been considered about this problem. Much – Much was discussed at the meeting. Neither - Neither person was selected for the position. No one – No one has the keys to the gym. Nobody – Nobody was at the library. Nothing – Nothing is going to stop me. One – One of the clients is unhappy with our work. Somebody – Somebody needs to call a doctor. Someone – Someone is stealing money from the register. Something – Something has gone wrong at work. The following indefinite pronouns are considered plural and must be followed by plural verbs. Both – Both are guilty. Few – Few were happy with the outcome. Fewer – Fewer are eating healthy in this time. Many – Many were selected to play in the tournament. Others – Others can do the job much better. Several – Several were capable of getting the job done. The following indefinite pronouns can take either a singular or plural verb depending on the noun used. All – All the boys are tired of playing. OR All the time has gone. Any – Any choices are good. OR Any choice is good. More – More colors are good. OR More color is good. Most – Most of the fires are quenched. OR Most of the fire is out. None – None of the pies have been sold. OR None of the pie has been eaten. Some – Some of my friends are coming. OR Some of my family is coming.

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62 10. QUESTIONS When forming questions the auxiliary or be verb is placed before the subject. If one of these is not used then a correct form of the verb do should be used. The tense and person are shown only by the auxiliary and not by the main verb. Yes/No Questions Some questions can only be answered with either yes or no. They use this formula: Is Mark coming with us to the mall Was Darrell at work yesterday Have you ever been skydiving Will Mr. Johnson announce the contest winner today Do you know if math homework is due tomorrow Does Lisa like roses Did Carlton receive his priority package Informative Questions These are questions that require more detailed answers than simply yes or no. More information is being requested. There are three different types of informative questions.  Who or what questions are requesting information concerning the subject. The subject is unknown. Who has a question Someone has a question. What came in the mail today Something came in the mail today.  Whom and what are considered complement questions. The complement is unknown and information on it is being requested. NOTE: Who is often misused in spoken English to ask a complement question. However whom is the correct form in written English to indicate that the question is requesting information on the complement position. Whom does Jackie see from the office Jackie sees someone from the office. What are you doing Friday night You are doing something Friday night.  When where why and how questions are similar to complement questions as they are seeking more information about the action of the subject. auxiliary be + subject + verb do does did

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63 When did Erin receive her letter jacket Where do you go to get assistance Why does Kathy have such a big dog How can you make my car go faster Embedded Questions An embedded question is included in a sentence or another question. The word order is different from that in a typical question except for subject questions. There must NOT be an auxiliary between the question word and the subject in an embedded question. Normal Question: When will the court hearing begin Embedded Question: They haven’t determined when the court hearing will begin. Normal Question: Why did John hit that girl Embedded Question: I don’t understand why John hit that girl. Question words within a sentence can be single words or phrases. Phrases include: whose + noun how many how much how long how often what time and what kind. Betty didn’t know how many cupcakes to make for the Girl Scout troop. I asked Doug how often he jogs every week. The girls asked the ranger how far it was to the next camping point. We wanted to know what kind of fruit was in this delicious ice cream. The boss wanted to know whose break time it was. When there is an embedded question within a question the embedded question is seeking the actual information. Do you know what time it is The questioner is requesting the time. Could you tell me how to get to the post office The questioner is asking directions.

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64 Exercise 18: Creating Embedded Questions Complete the following sentences to create embedded questions from the given question. Example: Why is she angry I don’t know why she’s angry. 1. Who has seen the new vampire movie I’d like to know _______________________________. 2. How do you do this algebra homework Could you tell me ______________________________ 3. Where can I find that new fantasy book Tell me ______________________________________. 4. When will the train arrive The travel updates ______________________________. 5. Why is Sally crying Do you have any idea ___________________________ Tag Questions A tag question is placed at the end of a sentence clause which the speaker is uncertain about. The tag question is separated from the main clause by a comma and ends in a question mark. Follow these guidelines for using tag questions:  If the main clause is negative then the tag is affirmative. If the main clause is affirmative then the tag is negative.  Negative forms are usually contracted She was happy wasn’t she  Use the same auxiliary verb in the tag as in the main clause. If an auxiliary is not used then use do does or did.  Don’t change the tense of the verb from the main clause to the tag.  Use the same subject that is in the main clause for the tag. Always use a subject pronoun for the tag.  Sentence forms that use there is there are and it is will have the same use of there or it in the tag. There is enough for everyone isn’t there  The verb have can be used as the main verb I have a headache or as an auxiliary verb Jenny has received her diploma. When have functions as the main verb a form of do does or did must be used You have a headache don’t you Examples of tag questions: Eric is in gym class now isn’t he

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65 Julie isn’t in gym class now is she The train will be arriving soon won’t it There aren’t any potato chips left are there You have a new car don’t you Exercise 19: Creating Tag Questions Complete the following sentences by adding a tag question with the correct form of the verb and subject pronoun. 1. You’re learning English quickly _________________ 2. Tommy is going to the party with us __________________ 3. Tom and Andy will be coming to the movies with us __________________ 4. It’s a great time of the year for a vacation ___________________ 5. There isn’t any pizza left from last night ___________________ 6. We’ve already taken that test ______________________ 7. Yvette is going to Peru this year _______________________ 8. There’s plenty of room left in the bus ______________________ 9. They shouldn’t be playing around that area ______________________ 10. You have been to Washington D.C. ______________________

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66 11. ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS Adjectives Adjectives are used to describe or modify nouns. They give additional descriptive information to a noun: hungry child beautiful flowers French doors old man. An adjective is considered neither singular nor plural. A final plural –s is never added to an adjective. I saw some beautiful models at the show. NOT: I saw some beautiful models at the show. Adjectives only modify nouns pronouns and linking verbs see Linking Verbs section for more information on linking verbs. Adjectives normally come before the nouns they modify or follow linking verbs. If more than one adjective is used a comma is placed between to separate them. The giant green monster chased the tiny frightened astronauts. adjectives noun adjectives noun Adjectives that modify a singular countable noun are usually preceded by a an or the which is determined by the vowel sound of the adjective not the noun. a delicious apple an ugly duckling the scary story Adverbs Adverbs are used to describe or modify verbs except linking verbs adjectives or other adverbs. Adverbs are often formed by adding –ly to an adjective. Adjective: rapid Adverb: rapidly Adverbs are often used to modify give additional information to adjectives. She is extremely nervous. adverb adjective The following words are also adverbs: almost fast often so too well. An adverb can be identified because it answers the question: How She is extremely nervous. How nervous is she We almost won. How did we win The bird flew fast. How did the bird fly Steven eats too much candy. How much candy does Steven eat

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67 Stacy plays violin well. How does Stacy play violin Adverbs can be placed in several positions depending on the sentence.  Adverbs are often placed at the beginning of a sentence. It is followed by a comma in this instance. Usually the girls go to the mall on the weekend.  Adverbs can also be placed at the end of a sentence. The girls go to the mall on the weekend usually.  Adverbs can be placed before simple present and simple past verbs except be. The girls usually go to the mall on the weekend. The girls usually went to the mall on the weekend.  Adverbs follow the verb be in its simple and past forms. Joan is normally in the competition. Cows were frequently in the field.  Adverbs are placed between an auxiliary verb and a main verb. He has always gone to work early.  In a question an adverb is placed directly after the subject. Does the bus always come on time

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68 Exercise 20: Using Adjectives and Adverbs Underline the correct adjective or adverb in parentheses. Then write AJ for adjective or AV for adverb in the blank at the end of the sentence to determine in what capacity the chosen word is used. Example: He likes sad sadly movies. __AJ__ 1. They sing good well. _______ 2. Ellen’s chocolate cake is delicious deliciously. _______ 3. The students speak fluent fluently English. _______ 4. The students speak English fluent fluently. _______ 5. This is an awesome awesomely painting. _______ 6. The lady at the opera sang beautiful beautifully. _______ 7. Incredible Incredibly the baby survived the plane crash. _______ 8. That is a considerable considerably fee to enter the game. _______ 9. The fee is considerable considerably more than I expected. _______ 10. He needs to swim fast fastly in order to beat the champion. _______ For more exercises on using Adjectives and Adverbs please see: http://gmatclub.com/forum/search.phpsearch_idtagtag_id137

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69 COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS: PART I Coordinating conjunctions are words which link or coordinate two or more similar words phrases or clauses together into one fluid idea. Words that are considered coordinating conjunctions are and but or and nor. Parallel Structure Parallel structure is when conjunctions are used to connect words or phrases that have the same grammatical function in a sentence. There are several ways to create parallel structure.  Two nouns are connected by a conjunction. Laura and her sister are coming to the party. Roger or Beth will win the election.  Two verbs are connected by a conjunction. Michael raised his hand and asked a question. Denise hesitated but continued the race anyway. When both verbs contain the same auxiliary verb the second auxiliary is usually omitted. Terry is doing his homework and is listening the radio. When two infinitive verbs are connected the second to is usually omitted. The reporter wants to go and to interview the celebrity in person. We want to attend the theater or to play a board game tonight.  Two adjectives are connected by a conjunction. The singer’s voice was tender but strong. The cake was tasty and sweet.  Two adverbs are connected by a conjunction. The thief walked softly and quietly. The plane was flying fast but low. A parallel structure can contain more than two parts. When a series of items are connected commas are used to separate each unit. A comma can be used or omitted before the connecter but the same pattern should be used throughout the text. See more on comma usage later in the book. Paul John George and Ringo formed the Beatles band. connected nouns Charlie entered the boat took to the water and began fishing. Connected verbs Our school colors are black gold and green. connected adjectives Paul didn’t react peacefully correctly or intelligently. connected adverbs

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70 Exercise 21: Using Conjunctions in Parallel Structure In the following sentences circle the conjunction underline the two words it connects and write what the words are in the blank to the right nouns verbs adjectives or adverbs. Example: The old lady was extremely kind gentle. ______adjectives______ 1. Sally and Randy went to the dance together. ____________________ 2. The children played lively and energetically. ____________________ 3. Johnny is jumping and bouncing on the trampoline. ____________________ 4. Margaret has lost her earrings but not her bracelet. ____________________ 5. That color isn’t really brown orange or red. ____________________ For more exercises on Parallel Structure please see: http://gmatclub.com/forum/search.phpsearch_idtagtag_id141 and

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71 PREPOSITIONS AND PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES Prepositional phrases are an important part of the English language. A prepositional phrase begins with a preposition. Often the preposition shows direction or placement such as in at under around through to over etc. but not always such as about of since till until etc. The preposition includes an object of the preposition which is a noun or pronoun. See a list of commonly used prepositions. prepositional phrase on the horse preposition on object of preposition the horse The man rode on the horse . OR The man rode on it . prep. noun phrase prep. pronoun Prepositional phrases can contain adjectives that modify the noun or object. The man rode on the brown horse. There can also be multiple prepositional phrases used in order to give more information. Each additional phrase provides more information to the main idea of the sentence. The man rode on the horse across the prairie in the rain . prep. phrase prep. phrase prep. phrase Sometimes a prepositional phrase can be at the beginning of a sentence. If this is the case it is followed by a comma see more about comma usage in the punctuation section. In the first inning he scored a goal. Exercise 22: Identifying Prepositions and Objects of Prepositions Underline each prepositional phrase in the sentences below and write “P” underneath the preposition and “OP” under the object of the preposition. NOTE: Some sentences may have more than one prepositional phrase. Example: The lion roared from the jungle. P OP 1. The dragon blew fire at the knight. 2. Yesterday I saw Kathy at the store around the corner. 3. The scared rabbit ran under the porch. 4. In the beginning John was nervous about the test. 5. The eggs were broken in the carton. 6. Sally hurt her knee on the ice from the fall.

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72 7. Children love to play in the snow. 8. The band played passionately to the fans at the stadium. 9. The medics rushed the patient down the hall into the emergency room. 10. Carla and Amy love to go to the movies on Saturday night.

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73 12. COMPARISONS Comparisons use adjectives and adverbs to indicate degrees of difference which can be equal or unequal. Equal Comparisons An equal comparison shows that two entities are exactly the same if positive or not the same if negative. The word as is used on either side of the adjective or adverb. Mary is as tall as her sister. OR Mary is not as tall as her sister. Sometimes the word so is used in the first position of a negative comparison. Mary is not so tall as her sister. NOTE: In correct English a subject pronoun is always used after the comparison phrase. This is often misused in speech. Mary is as tall as she. You are not as old as I. Examples of equal comparisons: My brother is as big as an ox. adjective Robert is as intelligent as Jane. adjective That sprinter runs as fast as a cheetah. adverb Our choir sings as well as yours. adverb Sometimes nouns can be used in comparative phrases of equality by using the same in front of it. My car runs the same speed as yours. My car runs as fast as yours. Their party ran the same length as the concert. Their party ran as long as the concert. NOTE: The opposite of the same as is different from. You should never use different than. My ice cream is different from yours. Their uniforms are different from ours.

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74 Unequal Comparisons Unequal comparatives show that there is a greater or lesser degree of difference. The word than is always used at the end of the comparative unless the object has already been established and is known. My brother is bigger than your brother. OR My brother is bigger. object known The following rules generally apply to this type of comparative.  Add –er to the adjective or adverb base of most one and two syllable words. fast faster tall taller smart smarter  When the adjective or adverb has three or more syllables then you add the word more without changing the adjective or adverb. more important more gorgeous more intelligent  Also use more with words ending in these suffixes: -ed -ing -ful -ous -ish. more enraged more careful more caring more porous more bullish  With one-syllable words that end in a single consonant and are preceded by a single vowel the consonant is doubled before adding –er with the exception of w x and z. hot hotter big bigger red redder  When a word ends in a consonant + y change the y to I and add –er. clumsy clumsier funny funnier dry drier NOTE: The suffix –er means the same as more. It is incorrect to use them together. You can NOT say: more nicer more uglier more faster Using much or far before the unequal comparative intensifies the meaning even more. Your outfit is far more fashionable than mine. A jet is much faster than a plane. Silver is much less desirable than gold. Nouns can also be used in comparisons but the correct determiners must be used with countable or uncountable nouns. Countable nouns use more fewer less + noun + than He has more comics than me. Non-countable nouns use many much little less + noun + as They have as much food as we. Examples of countable and non-countable nouns used in comparatives: Emily has as little money as I. non-countable

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75 I have fewer coins than Emily. countable My friend doesn’t have as much work as Sam. non-countable I have more classes than my friend. countable Positives Comparatives and Superlatives Most adjectives have three forms: the positive sad the comparative sadder and the superlative saddest. If the adjective has three or more syllables then it will usually begin with more or less or most or least without changing the adjective. Study the following chart. Adverbs are also sometimes used as comparatives and superlatives. Usually adverbs have three or more syllables. If so they are used with more or less for the comparative and most or least for the superlative. She worked more painstakingly than Ralph. comparative He behaved more comically than all the other clowns. comparative That bull acts the most chaotic of all. superlative That kid cries the most pitifully of all the rest. superlative The positive doesn’t show any comparison but simply describes the quality of a person group or thing. The girl is pretty. The doctor is smart. The comparative shows a greater or lesser degree of difference between two people groups or things. The word than is used if the object of comparison is mentioned. It is not needed if the object of comparison is understood. His dad is taller than yours. OR His dad is taller. This disease is more contagious than that one. OR This disease is more contagious. Martin is less dynamic than his brother. OR Martin is less dynamic. The superlative compares three or more people groups or things and shows which one is superior or inferior to the others. Sally is the nicest girl in our class. Ralph is the most successful graduate of our school. POSITIVE COMPARATIVE SUPERLATIVE large larger largest pretty prettier prettiest intelligent less intelligent least intelligent beautiful more beautiful most beautiful

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76 This computer is the least expensive of all of them. The phrase “one of the” is commonly used with superlative form to show that one person group or thing out of a number of people groups or things is the most or least. When this phrase is used the “group” noun is plural while the verb is singular. One of the fastest planes in the world is the Concord. Mohammad Ali is one of the greatest boxers in the world. Irregular Comparatives and Superlatives A few adjectives and superlatives used in comparative and superlative phrases are irregular. Study the examples in the chart below. Examples of irregular comparatives and superlatives: Sally’s cooking is much better than Mary’s. My car is running worse now than it did yesterday. I live farther away than you. Why do these shoes cost less than those Numbered Comparatives Numbered comparatives can include such words or phrases as: half twice three times four times etc. The phrase as much as is used for non-countable nouns and as many as is used for countable nouns. The phrase more than is NOT used with numbered comparatives. It is incorrect to say four times more than etc. This rock weighs twice as much as that one. Ronald has four times as much money as Paul. The cat had half as many kittens as before. ADJECTIVE OR ADVERB COMPARATIVE SUPERLATIVE far farther farthest O R further furthest little less least much or many more most good or well better best bad or badly worse worst

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77 Double Comparatives When a sentence begins with a comparative structure then the second clause must also begin with a comparative. The harder you study the easier the class will be. The sooner you get to work the earlier you can go home. The more you resist the harder it will be. The more he studied the better he got at Math. No Sooner If the phrase no sooner begins a sentence the word than must begin the second clause. Also notice that the auxiliary verb is placed before the subject in this sentence structure. No sooner had Lisa hung out the laundry than it began to rain. No sooner will I receive my check than it will all be spent on bills. No sooner had he began the competition than he felt a tear in his leg muscle. Exercise 23: Using Comparisons Fill in the blank with the correct form of the adjectives and adverbs in parentheses. Supply any other words that may be necessary. Pay attention to the words as and than for guidance. 1. This bowl of soup is __________________ hot than the last bowl. 2. She acts ___________________ well as Sandra Bullock. 3. Jerry’s pet is ____________________ exotic than Sue’s. 4. Your graduation gift is ____________________ good than mine. 5. My job is ______________________ serious as yours. 6. He was ______________________ determined than Joe to win the race. 7. Charlie has grown __________________________ tall as his brother. 8. She was ________________________ shock as I to see the test results. 9. Johnny was ________________________ truthful than before in telling his story. 10. I feel _________________________bad today than yesterday. For more exercise on Using Comparisons please see: http://gmatclub.com/forum/search.phpsearch_idtagtag_id140

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78 Exercise 24: Using Comparisons: Than As From Fill in the blank with the correct comparative word of than as or from. 1. A cat is much quicker ______________ a mouse. 2. The dolphins swam as fast _______________ our boat. 3. Jennifer was much more certain of the answer ______________ Julie. 4. My twin cousin is indistinguishable ______________ the other. 5. Unmanned rockets can now travel much further _____________ the moon. 6. John’s speech was much different _______________ mine. 7. The ball game continued much longer ______________ expected. 8. Our cheerleaders were as good _______________ theirs. 9. Nathan was stronger ______________ Michael so he won the match. 10. I think crumpets are much tastier ______________ crepes.

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79 13. COMMANDS A command is an order given to another person. It can be preceded by please in order to make it more polite. The simple form of the verb is used and you is the understood subject. Make your bed. Clean your room. Please open the door for me. Be quiet. Negative Commands A negative command adds the word don’t before the simple verb. Don’t get in my way. Don’t miss the bus. Please don’t do that again. Don’t put that there. Indirect Commands Indirect commands will normally use the verbs ask tell order or say. They are followed by the infinitive of the verb to + verb. The judge ordered him to pay what he owed. The professor asked the class to open their books. Please tell Paul to return the library book. He told me to wait in the hall. Negative Indirect Commands Add the word not before the infinitive verb to make an indirect command negative. I told Rachel not to walk that way to school. Abigail ordered Jerry not to pull her hair. Please ask the kids not to make so much noise. Sue asked the hairdresser not to shorten her hair length. 14. NEGATION – PART I - USING NOT In order to make a sentence negative use the word not after the auxiliary verb or verb be. NOTE: When adding not to the auxiliary can the word is written as one word – cannot. Robert is happy. Robert is not happy. George has done his homework. George has not done his homework. Stephanie has arrived. Stephanie has not arrived. You can climb the wall. You cannot climb the wall.

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80 If there is no auxiliary or be verb then add the correct form of do do does did and place the word not after that. Examples of sentences which do not contain an auxiliary verb and must be used with do does or did. Mark like to swim. Mark does not like to swim. Stacy went to the dentist. Stacy did not go to the dentist. We want to travel to Europe. We do not want to travel to Europe. None / No None is used with either a plural count or non-count noun. It CANNOT be used with a single count noun. The verb form will depend on the noun used. None of the girls have played soccer before. plural count noun girls None of the water has leaked into the basement. Non-count noun water No can be used with all nouns. The verb form will depend on the noun used. No boy is going to date my daughter. Single count noun boy No cars are completely energy efficient. Plural count noun cars No water is safe to drink from that county. Non-count noun water Some / Any Some is used before the complement in a positive/affirmative sentence while any is used before the complement in a negative sentence. I want some coffee. I don’t want any coffee. Daniel has some pizza. Daniel doesn’t have any pizza. Debby had some homework. Debby didn’t have any homework. It is also possible to make a sentence negative by adding the word no before the complement noun. When this occurs the verb CANNOT be negative see Double Negatives next. Daniel has no pizza. Debby has no homework. Either / Neither Either is used as an indication of selection between two choices while neither is used to indicate that none of the two choices is viable. NOTE: When either or neither are used as the subject they always use a singular verb. Either of the jackets is a good choice for the banquette.

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81 Neither of the cars is fast enough to win the race. Also when indicating the two choices individually either uses the word or between choices while neither uses the word nor between choices. Either Sue or Helen has your keys. Neither Sue nor Helen has your keys. 15. DOUBLE NEGATIVES In English double negatives must be avoided. It is incorrect to use two negatives in the same sentence clause. Study the examples below: INCORRECT CORRECT OR I don’t have no money. I don’t have any money. I have no money. We didn’t want no ice. We didn’t want any ice. We wanted no ice. He doesn’t like nobody. He doesn’t like anybody. He likes nobody. She can’t never come out. She can’t ever come out. She can’t come out. Exercise 25: Avoiding Double Negatives Correct the following sentences all of which contain double negatives. Example: Jimmy doesn’t have no manners. Jimmy doesn’t have any manners. 1. Kathy didn’t do nothing. 2. There isn’t no milk in the refrigerator. 3. I can’t never understand him. 4. We couldn’t see nothing but people at the concert. 5. They didn’t trust nobody.

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82 Practice Test 1 Basic Level Choose the best answer for each of the underlined sections of the following sentences based on the material covered in this section. 1. The Lake Titicaca has the most volume of the water of any lake in South America making it the largest lake in that country. a The Lake Titicaca has the most volume of the water of any lake in South America b Lake Titicaca has the most volume of water of any lake in South America c Lake Titicaca has the most volume of a water of each lake in South America d The Lake Titicaca has the most volume of water of any lake in South America e Lake Titicaca has the most volume of water of some lakes in South America 2. The courts ruled that have there being safety protocols initiated the accident would not have occurred. a The courts ruled that have there being safety protocols initiated b The courts ruled that had there being safety protocols initiated c The courts rule that had there been safety protocols initiated d The courts ruled that had there been safety protocols initiated e The courts ruled that have there been safety protocols initiated

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83 3. Because they were eye witnesses to the crime Amy Sue and Jack were called to testify at the robbery hearing. a Amy Sue and Jack were called to testify at the robbery hearing b Amy Sue and Jack they were called to testify at the robbery hearing c Amy Sue and Jack was called to testify at the robbery hearing d Amy Sue and Jack were calling to testify at the robbery hearing e Amy Sue and Jack were called to testifying at the robbery hearing 4. Terry is a great pianist who plays gooder than anyone in our city and has even become famouser than anyone in our state. a who plays gooder than anyone in our city and has even become famouser than anyone b whom plays better than anyone in our city and has even become more famous of anyone c who plays better of anyone in our city and has even become famouser than anyone d who plays gooder than anyone in our city and has even become more famous than anyone e who plays better than anyone in our city and has even become more famous than anyone 5. Due to traffic being backed up by the time I arrived at my parent’s house the reunion was over for hours and all my relatives have gone. a was over for hours and all my relatives have gone b had been over for hours and all my relatives had gone c were over for hours and all my relatives had gone d has been over for hours and all my relatives was gone e had been over for hours and all my relatives had been gone

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84 6. When Mary rises in the morning she already has her clothes layed out to wear to work in order to save time so she isn’t late. a rises in the morning she already has her clothes layed out b raises in the morning she already has her clothes lain out c rises in the morning she already has her clothes lain out d rose in the morning she already has her clothes laid out e rises in the morning she already has her clothes laid out 7. The jury have been in deliberation since very early this morning over this case. a The jury have been in deliberation b The jury has been in deliberation c The jury it has been in deliberation d The jurys have been in deliberation e The jury has been for deliberation 8. After history class my wife asked me to stop and pick up three meat two sticks of butter and a carton of milk from the store. a three meat two sticks of butter and a carton of milk b three meat two butter and a milk c three cuts of meat two butter and a carton of milk d three cuts of meat two sticks of butter and a carton of milk e three meats two butters and a milk

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85 9. When John returned from Thai Land he said the people were intellegenter and more small than what he imagined. a were intelligenter and more small than what he imagined b was more intelligent and more small than he imagined c were more intelligent and smaller than he had imagined d were intelligenter and smaller than he had imagined e was more intelligent and smaller than he was imagining 10. Mr. Schuler had finished repairing my computer by the time I arrived at his shop even though I was early. a by the time I arrived at his shop even though I was early b when I arrived at his shop a bit early c because I was early to arrive at his shop d by the time I arrived at his shop because I was early e in case I arrived at his shop early 11. Jimmy likes to play basketball as he were Michael Jordan flying through the air and dunking the ball. a as he were Michael Jordan b as though he were Michael Jordan c like he were Michael Jordan d as though he was like Michael Jordan e as if he was like Michael Jordan

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86 12. Alice doesn’t really like to eat vegetables but she ate a little peas some carrots and both corn at her grandmother’s for dinner. a she ate a little peas some carrots and both corn b she ate some peas much carrots and a couple corn c she ate some peas a lot of carrots and a couple ears of corn d she ate a little peas a little carrots and lots of corn e she ate some peas a lot of carrots and a much ears of corn 13. After being frightened the mouses ran so fast the children couldn’t see their feets. a the mouses ran so fast the children couldn’t see their feets b the mice ran so fast the children couldn’t see their feet c the mice ran so fast the childs couldn’t see their feet d the mouses ran so fast the children couldn’t see their feet e the mice ran so fast the children couldn’t see their feets 14. The girls didn’t have a good time at the dance last night because no boys ask them to dance. a because no boys ask them to dance b because none of the boys they liked ask them to dance c therefore no boys did ask them to dance d so none of the boys asked none of the girls to dance e because none of the boys asked them to dance

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87 15. Jonathon didn’t believe in UFOs until he saw one hover above his house and take off like a streak across the sky. a didn’t believe in UFOs until he saw one b don’t believe in UFOs until he saw one c believed not in UFOs until he seen one d hasn’t believed in UFOs until he sees one e didn’t never believe in UFOs until he saw one 16. The suit made superbly by the tailor causing the cowardly old man feel like a fierce young lion. a The suit made superbly by the tailor causing b The suit was altered superbly by the tailor causing c When the suit can be made superbly by the tailor it caused d The suit was altered superbly by the tailor making e The altered suit is made superbly by the tailor causing 17. Ralph is hating Jessica’s new dress even though he loves her deeply. a is hating Jessica’s new dress even though he loves b hates Jessica’s new dress even though he will be loving c will be hating Jessica’s new dress even though he is loving d hates Jessica’s new dress even though he is loving e hates Jessica’s new dress even though he loves

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88 18. The fanatical young group of girls have been waiting in the concert line all night by the time the tickets go on sale. a have been waiting in the concert line all night b will have been waiting in the concert line each night c will have been waiting in the concert line the entire night d had been waiting in the concert line all night e has been waiting in the concert line the whole night 19. Perplexing questions there are in quantum mechanics because of how things change in their behavior on a subatomic level. a Perplexing questions there are in quantum mechanics b There is in quantum mechanics many perplexing questions c There is lots of perplexing questions when it comes to quantum mechanics d Perplexing questions there is in the field of quantum mechanics e There are some very perplexing questions in quantum mechanics 20. Molly said her friend that Jeff told that he was going to ask her to marry him at the party tonight. a Molly said her friend that Jeff told that b Molly told her friend that Jeff said that c The friend was telling by Molly that Jeff told everyone that d Molly was telling to her friend that Jeff said that e Molly told her friend that Jeff was telling that

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89 21. Mr. Worthington accompanied by his wife are receiving the Teacher’s Excellence Award tonight at the university auditorium. a Mr. Worthington accompanied by his wife are receiving b Mr. Worthington and his wife who is accompanying him are receiving c Mr. Worthington accompanied by his wife is receiving d Mr. Worthington and his wife is receiving e Mr. Worthington is receiving who is accompanied by his wife 22. My sister Lucy still hasn’t decided the country where she wants to travel after she graduates from university. a still hasn’t decided the country where she wants to travel b which country she wants to visit still doesn’t know it c is undecided about the country where she wants to travel d hasn’t decided which country where she is traveling e still hasn’t decided what country she wants to visit 23. The Eiffel Tower is the tallest building in Paris standing as tall as an 81-storey building and is built as the entrance arch to the 1889 World’s Fair. a standing as tall as an 81-storey building and is built b standing taller as an 81-storey building and was built c standing as tall as an 81-storey building and was built d standing as tall as a 81-storey building and was being built e stood as tall as an 81-storey building and would be built

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90 24. My teacher used to always say that the harder you study the easier any subject would be to master. a the harder you study the easier any subject would be b the more hard you study the easier any subject would be c the harder you study the easiest any subject would be d the harder you study the more easy any subject would be e the more hard you study the more easy any subject would be 25. Marjorie don’t want to go to the amusement park with the kids and they no want to go to the beach with her. a don’t want to go to the amusement park with the kids and they no want b don’t want to go to the amusement park with the kids and they don’t want c no wants to go to the amusement park with the kids and they no want d doesn’t want to go to the amusement park with the kids and they don’t want e wants to not go to the amusement park with the kids and they want not 26. Forensic experts caught a break in the disappearance of the woman when they found a cloth from her jacket on iron post and her shoe in an lake. a a cloth from her jacket on iron post and her shoe in an lake b some cloth from her jacket on a iron post and her shoe in a lake c an piece of cloth from her jacket on an iron post and her shoe in an lake d a piece of cloth from her jacket on an iron post and her shoe in a lake e cloth from her jacket on iron post and her shoe in a area of the lake

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91 27. The boys were really hungry so they ordered two pizzas ate the first one finished the other one and then ordered other. a finished the other one and then ordered other b finished the other one and then ordered another c finished another and then ordered other pizza d finished the other pizza and then ordered other e finished other and then ordered another one 28. Two-thirds the students voted to visit the zoo and other one-third voted to go the amusement park so the class went to the zoo. a Two-thirds the students voted to visit the zoo and other one-third b Two-thirds of students voted to visit the zoo while another one-third c Since two-thirds of the students voted to visit the zoo leaving a one-third that d More than two-thirds of the students voted to visit the zoo and another one-third e Two-thirds of the students voted to visit the zoo and another one-third 29. Three people from work had to be going to prison because they had stealed money from the company. a had to be going to prison because they had stealed b were having gone to prison because they stealed c went to prison because they had stolen d are gone to prison because they had to be stealing e went to prison because they are stealing 30. The army is focusing on specialized training in order to be better prepared to combat terrorism. a is focusing on specialized training in order to be better prepared to combat b are focusing on specialized training so they are better prepared to combat

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92 c are focusing on specialized training in order of being better prepared to combat d is focusing on specialized training for to be better prepared combating e are to focus on specialized training so they can be better prepared at combating 31. Although a trend in the stock market have shown investor confidence may finally be rising the current economic recovery continues to fluctuate sporadically which keeps hopes in check. a have shown investor confidence may finally be rising b has shown investor confidence is to be finally rising c is to show that consumer confidence may be rising d has shown investor confidence may finally be rising e may be showing a raising in investor confidence 32. The 16 th President of the United States Abraham Lincoln was borned the second child to Nancy and Thomas Lincoln February 12 th 1809 in Hardin County Kentucky. a was borned the second child to b was born the second child to c could have been born the second child for d born as a second child for e has been born the second child to 33. The Fountain of Time sculpture is a monument to the first 100 years of peace between the United States and Great Britain because it is located in Washington Park in Chicago’s South Side. a because it is located in Washington Park in Chicago’s South Side b at the Washington Park in Chicago’s South Side location c and is located within Washington Park in Chicago’s South Side d which locates within Washington Park at Chicago’s South Side e of the location at Chicago’s South Side within Washington Park

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93 34. In August 2010 a report was published on stone projectile points dating back 64000 years excavating from layers of ancient sediment in Sibudu Cave South Africa. a was published on stone projectile points dating back 64000 years excavating from layers b were published on stone projectile points dating back 64000 years layers excavated c published about stone projectile points dating back 64000 years excavated from layers d was published on stone projectile points dating back 64000 years excavated from layers e on stone projectile points dating back 64000 years was published about layers

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94 35. William Basse a British poet is best known for his Epitaph on Shakespeare which is a poem in the form of a sonnet. a for his Epitaph on Shakespeare which is a poem in the form of a sonnet b because of his Epitaph on Shakespeare which is a sonnet poem c by the way of his Epitaph on Shakespeare sonnet poem d his poem being Epitaph on Shakespeare a sonnet e for his Epitaph on Shakespeare it is a poem in the form of a sonnet 36. John and Eric wanted to go on the class trip to Europe but either of them had money sufficient to go. a but either of them had money sufficient to go b however neither of them had too much money to go c but both of them didn’t have enough money for going d but either of them had enough money to go e but neither of them had sufficient money to go 37. When it came down to who would be chosen as team captain Joe Charlie and me were the final candidates. a Joe Charlie and me were the final candidates b Joe Charlie and me are those of us who are the final candidates c Joe Charlie and I were the final candidates d we were the final candidates Joe Charlie and me e the best choice being Joe Charlie and I

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95 38. My boss was quite angry with him because it took over a hour to prepare for the audit. a with him because it took over a hour b with himself because it took over an hour c because it took himself over an hour d with hisself because it took over an hour e with himself because it took over a hour 39. The Soviet Red Army formed at least 42 divisions during the Second World War which had substantial ethnic majorities in their composition. a formed at least 42 divisions during the Second World War which had b was formed at least 42 divisions during the Second World War that had c was comprised of at least 42 divisions throughout World War II who has d formed at least 42 divisions during the Second World War which have had e created some 42 divisions for World War II wherein 40. Bob won the fishing competition because he caught three pounds greater than his closest rival George. a caught three pounds greater than b has caught three pounds better than c would have caught three pounds more than d caught better than three pounds greater to e had caught three pounds more than

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96 41. Mr. Gordons comic book collection grew extensively with it’s addition of Korean Manhwa comics. a Mr. Gordons comic book collection grew extensively with it’s b Mr. Gordon’s comic book collection it grew extensively with the c Mr. Gordons collection of comic books grew extensively with its d Mr. Gordon’s comic book collection grew extensively with its e The collection of Mr. Gordon’s comics grew extensively because of it’s 42. John Glenn Jr. which was the first American to orbit the earth was both an astronaut and a United States Senator. a which was the first American to orbit the earth b which was orbiting the earth as the first American c who was the first American astronaut for which to orbit the earth d who was the first American to orbit the earth e the first American of who orbited the earth 43. The eerie bluely Northern Lights were an awesome spectacle for the kids on their first trip to Alaska. a The eerie bluely Northern Lights were an awesome b The blue Northern Lights of eeriness were an awesome c The eerie blue Northern Lights were a awesome d The bluely and eerily Northern Lights was an awesome e The eerie blue Northern Lights were an awesome

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97 44. Our trip to Australia will be very long due that it will take 14 hours to arrive there by plane. a due that it will take b as it could possibly be taking c since it takes d for it to take e that it will take 45. The X-Files was a popular television series which explored the popular theory of a government plot to cover up anything pertaining to the existence of extraterrestrial life. a which explored the popular theory of a government plot to cover up b that explores the theoretical plot of popular cover up of c which explored the popular plot of the government that should hide d who explored the plot theory of the government’s attempt to hide e which theoretically explored the popular government cover up for 46. The freshly baked pie is smelling so good that the kids couldn’t wait to eat it. a is smelling so good b was smelling so good c smelled too good d smelled so good e was so well smelling

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98 47. Johnny was so feeling bad that he couldn’t go to school and had to go to the doctor instead. a was so feeling bad b was feeling so bad c was feeling too bad d could have been feeling so bad e felt so bad enough 48. Hurling is a team sport created by the ancient Gaelic people who is played by using sticks and a ball to score a goal. a who is played by using sticks and a ball to score a goal b that is played by using sticks and a ball to score a goal c which plays by the use of sticks and a ball to score a goal d that using sticks and a ball someone scores a goal e who scores a goal by the use of sticks and a ball 49. There are a group of kids in our neighborhood who like to get together on the weekends and help less fortunate children. a There are a group of kids in our neighborhood who like to get together on the weekends and help b Getting together on the weekends are a group of kids which like helping c A group of kids on the weekend getting together in our neighborhood like the helping of d There is a group of kids in our neighborhood who like to get together on the weekends and help e In our neighborhood there is a group of kids who likes to get together on the weekends and helping 50. I arrived at the event early so that I could set close to the celebrities and have a vantage point to sit up my camera to take good photos.

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99 a could set close to the celebrities and have a vantage point to sit up my camera to take b had a good seat to set close to the celebrities and have a vantage point to set up my camera to take c could sit close to the celebrities and have a vantage point of setting up my camera of taking d should be able to sit close to the celebrities for having a vantage point to set up my camera in taking e could sit close to the celebrities and have a vantage point to set up my camera to take

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100 PART VI: ANSWERS TO EXERCISES

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101 Exercise 1: Identifying Subject Verb Complement and Modifier 1. Jerry / opened / his present. S V C 2. Mr. Johnson / drinks / coffee / every morning. S V C M 3. Birds / fly. S V 4. The dog / chased / the cat / up the tree. S V C M 5. The wind / blew / violently. S V M 6. Jimmy / scored / a goal / at the soccer match / last Saturday. S V C M M 7. They / ran / inside / quickly. S V M M 8. Bill George and Alice / bought / CDs / at the music store / today. S V C M M 9. The barrel / rolled / down the hill. S V M 10. Terry / is watching / television. S V C Exercise 2: Identifying Count and Non-Count Nouns minute C clothing N canyon C gas N smoke N food N eye C bus C spoon C advice N milk N math N

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102 Exercise 3: Using Articles 1. John is wearing ___a___ baseball cap today. 2. __The__ chair is ___a___ useful piece of furniture. 3. __The__ chairs in __the__ living room are antiques. 4. She cried when she peeled __the_or_an___ onion. Depends if onion is being referred to specifically or generally. 5. __The_or Ø__ women like to wear ___Ø____ jewelry. Depends if women are being referred to specifically or generally. 6. __The___ jewelry that my sister wears is made of ___Ø___ gold. 7. When you look at __the___ moon you can see ___a___ face. 8. ___An___ hour ago I saw ___an___ eagle flying overhead. 9. ___Ø___ life can be fun but sometimes there are ___Ø____ problems. 10. ___The____ last time I saw ____a____ bear I was travelling in ___Ø___ Europe. Exercise 4: Using Other / Another 1. I received two gifts for my birthday. One was from my parents. __The other__ one was from my brother. 2. This pie is fantastic Can I have ___another___ piece 3. These pants don’t fit well. Let me try ___the other___ ones. 4. I have a large stamp collection. The stamps in this section are from the United States. ___Others___ are from ___other___ places in the world. 5. Joshua likes to wear Nike shoes. He won’t wear any ___other___ brand. 6. I’m almost finished with my homework. I just need ___another___ ten minutes. 7. John Melissa and I are going to the movies. ___The others___ are going to the Craft Fair. 8. This house is brand new. ___The other___ house is really old. 9. We like to swim. ___Others____ like to surf and still ___others___ like to ski. 10. You can buy this shirt and ___another____ one. Which ___other____ would you like

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103 Exercise 5: Determining Quantity 1. Joan drank __________ sodas. 2. Randy drank _________ coffee. a. five a. five b. a few b. a few c. hardly any c. hardly any d. several d. several e. no e. no f. a lot of f. a lot of g. a great deal of g. a great deal of h. too much h. too much i. some i. some j. a number of j. a number of k. too many k. too many l. a little l. a little Exercise 6: Using the Present Tense Forms of Verbs 1. John ___is sleeping___ sleep on the couch at the moment. 2. My dad always ___sits___ sit in that chair. 3. I ___like___ like to go to the movies on the weekends. 4. The children ___are playing___ play at the neighbor’s house today. 5. The company ___is building___ build a new store. 6. Water ___washes___ wash away dirt. 7. My little brother ___has eaten___ eat all the candy It’s all gone 8. Jane ___is reading___ read her favorite book now. 9. Those boys ___have scared___ scare that cat many times before. 10. My wife and I ___cry___ cry when we watch sad movies.

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104 Exercise 7: Using the Past Tense Forms of Verbs 1. She ___was talking___ talk on the phone when the door bell rang. 2. Yesterday I ___caught___ catch a big fish on our camping trip. 3. Our group ___hiked___ hike the full length of the Inca Trail last week. 4. The bear ___had climbed___ climb a tree before the dogs got there. 5. The sky diver ___was falling___ fall very fast when the parachute opened. 6. My grandparents ___had arrived___ arrive before I returned from school. 7. I ___read___ read that story last year in literature class. 8. Mary ___was watching_ _ watch a movie when her aunt called from New York. 9. Jason ___was fishing___ fish in the pond when he saw a big snake. 10. The plumber ___found___ find the source of the water leak. Exercise 8: Using the Future Tense of Verbs 1. Steve Lucy and I __will be going__ go to Harvard University this fall. 2. I __will have started___ start classes by the time Rachel returns from Europe. 3. Rachel __will join___ join me in class when she returns. 4. I __will be thinking___ think about Rachel until she returns safely. 5. My cat __will be crying__ cry when I get home because she is hungry. 6. Our dog Rufus __will travel__ travel with us this summer. 7. My letter __will have arrived__ arrive to Rita by the time I get there. 8. The pilot said that it __will be raining__ rain when we arrive in Brazil. 9. My sister __will marry__ marry this coming June. 10. Tom __will have eaten__ eat three hamburgers when he finishes this one.

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105 Exercise 9: Using the Perfect Continuous Tense of Verbs 1. John __will have been hunting__ hunt for six hours when the sun goes down. 2. Sally and Mary __have been playing__ play together for three hours. 3. Our fans __had been cheering__ cheer until the other team scored. 4. Ralph and I __have been shopping__ shop all day. 5. The truck __had been making__ make bad noises until we got it fixed. 6. All the turkey __will have been eaten__ eat by the time we arrive. Exercise 10: Using Say and Tell 1. Jason __told__ his friend to shut up. 2. Jane __said__ that she is feeling sick. 3. My English teacher __said__ that I’m learning quickly. 4. The driver __said__ “I’ll pick you up at the airport.” 5. Please __tell__ me where to find the washing detergent. 6. The angry mother __said__ “ I __told__ you not to do that” 7. I heard Peter __say__ that he was going out with Becky tonight. 8. The security guard __told__ me to get off the stage. 9. __Tell__ me the story again 10. Will you __tell__ John to meet me after work Exercise 11: Using Know and Know How 1. The boys __know how__ to catch rabbits with snares. 2. Do you __know how__ to get to the airport from here 3. I didn’t __know__ that Jenny was pregnant. 4. I am amazed that Jack __knows__ where to go from here. 5. Some primitive tribes __knew how__ to perform surgery long ago.

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106 Exercise 12: Using Need 1. I need __to finish__ finish my homework. 2. The bus needs to be __filled__ fill with gas. 3. Mary’s garden needs __watering__ water. 4. The thief needs to be __punished__ punish. 5. Harold will need __to make__ make extra cash for his trip. 6. This problem needs __solving__ solve. 7. Nancy needs __to wash__ wash the dishes soon. 8. The crops need to be __harvested__ harvest before it rains. 9. Stacy and I need __to move__ move to another apartment. 10. That hole in the road needs __filling__ fill. Exercise 13: Using Like/As 1. My little brother cries _like__ a baby. 2. My stomach felt _as if/as though_ a train had run through it. 3. Darren appeared _as if/as though_ he needed help on the exam. 4. The Olympic sprinter can run _like_ the wind during competition. 5. The actor plays the part _as if/as though_ he were the actual character. 6. Margie’s computer is so old that it runs _like_ a turtle. 7. George’s mom is short and fat _like_ my mom. 8. Mr. Brown spoke _as if/as though_ he knew about quantum physics. 9. The winning fans responded _as if/as though_ their team was the greatest. 10. The winning fans responded _like_ a bunch of crazed maniacs.

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107 Exercise 14: Using Between/Among 1. Can you tell the difference _between_ this photo and the other one 2. Joanne found her wallet _between_ the bed and dresser. 3. Walter looked for his dog _among_ the houses of his neighborhood. 4. Charles and Sandra took a romantic walk _among_ the park fountains. 5. John felt at home _among_ his classmates at the school reunion. 6. The children couldn’t decide _between_ chocolate or vanilla ice cream. 7. Ms. Jennings was the most appreciated teacher _among_ her colleagues. 8. Our group was the noisiest _among_ all the fans that cheered at the game. 9. Walking _among_ the veterans’ graves made my grandfather very sad. 10. Could you get my keys laying on the table _between_ the couch and chair Exercise 15: Using Raise/Rise Set/Sit and Lay/Lie 1. Hens lay lie eggs. 2. Janice set sat the table for dinner. 3. Janice set sat at the table for dinner. 4. Mrs. Smith raises rises a garden every year. 5. I laid lay my wallet on top of the dresser. 6. The ability to succeed lies lays within you. 7. The old lady set sat on the bench because she was tired. 8. Hot air raises rises. 9. When I get tired I lay lie down and take a nap. 10. Jennifer raised rose from her seat to pick up her test paper.

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108 Exercise 16: Subject/Verb Agreement 1. The daughter of my best friend has/have won the spelling competition. 2. The geese that fly south for the winter is/are nesting around the lake. 3. The mayor together with his wife is/are attending the inaugural ball. 4. John and his wife Mary will has/have been married seven year tomorrow. 5. Police cars which are old and outdated is/are being auctioned off today. 6. Earthquakes around the ring of fire has/have been more frequent lately. 7. Joan of Arc who led many Frenchmen in revolution was/were the subject of my report. 8. The jury which has been deliberating the Johnson trial has/have been ordered to make a decision soon. 9. The grandson of the late Mr. Hopkins has/have inherited the billionaire’s estate. 10. Michele along with Sam and Justin is/are coming for my birthday party. Exercise 17: Using Pronouns 1. I think he his him is a great teacher. 2. Jason had to get he him himself ready for school today. 3. That yellow cat over there is me mine my. 4. The snake bit we us our horse on it it’s its leg. 5. Joanne and I me don’t want to go to him his he party. 6. I can’t believe that you your mother doesn’t like our ours. 7. John thought that he his him could do the job by hisself himself. 8. The cute boy speaks to she her every morning as they them themselves walk to school. 9. All of we us boy scouts are going camping this weekend. 10. She Her scolded she her dog for ruining it its it’s new toy.

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109 Exercise 18: Creating Embedded Questions 1. Who has seen the new vampire movie I’d like to know __who has seen the new vampire movie__. 2. How do you do this algebra homework Could you tell me __how to do this algebra homework__ 3. Where can I find that new fantasy book Tell me __where I can find that new fantasy book__. 4. When will the train arrive The travel updates __show when the train will arrive__. 5. Why is Sally crying Do you have any idea __why Sally is crying__ Exercise 19: Creating Tag Questions 1. You’re learning English quickly __aren’t you__ 2. Tommy is going to the party with us __isn’t he__ 3. Tom and Andy will be coming to the movies with us __won’t they__ 4. It’s a great time of the year for a vacation __isn’t it__ 5. There isn’t any pizza left from last night __is there__ 6. We’ve already taken that test __haven’t we__ 7. Yvette is going to Peru this year __isn’t she__ 8. There’s plenty of room left in the bus __isn’t there__ 9. They shouldn’t be playing around that area __should they__ 10. You have been to Washington D.C. __haven’t you__

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110 Exercise 20: Using Adjectives and Adverbs 1. They sing good well. __AV__ 2. Ellen’s chocolate cake is delicious deliciously. __AJ__ 3. The students speak fluent fluently English. __AJ__ 4. The students speak English fluent fluently. __AV__ 5. This is an awesome awesomely painting. __AJ__ 6. The lady at the opera sang beautiful beautifully. __AV__ 7. Incredible Incredibly the baby survived the plane crash. __AV__ 8. That is a considerable considerably fee to enter the game. __AJ__ 9. The fee is considerable considerably more than I expected. __AV__ 10. He needs to swim fast fastly in order to beat the champion. __A V__ Exercise 21: Using Conjunctions in Parallel Structure 1. Sally Randy went to the dance together. ______nouns_________ 2. The children played lively energetically. ______adverbs_______ 3. Johnny is jumping bouncing on the trampoline. _____ verbs_________ 4. Margaret has lost her earrings not her bracelet. ______nouns________ 5. That color isn’t really brown orange red. ______adjectives_____ and and but or and

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111 Exercise 22: Identifying Prepositions and Objects of Prepositions 1. The dragon blew fire at the knight. P OP 2. Yesterday I saw Kathy at the store around the corner. P OP P OP 3. The scared rabbit ran under the porch. P OP 4. In the beginning John was nervous about the test. P OP P OP 5. The eggs were broken in the carton. P OP 6. Sally hurt her knee on the ice from the fall. P OP P OP 7. Children love to play in the snow. P OP 8. The band played passionately to the fans at the stadium. P OP P OP 9. The medics rushed the patient down the hall into the emergency room. P OP P OP 10. Carla and Amy love to go to the movies on Saturday night. P OP P OP Exercise 23: Using Comparisons 1. This bowl of soup is __hotter__ hot than the last bowl. 2. She acts __as well as__ well as Sandra Bullock. 3. Jerry’s pet is __more exotic__ exotic than Sue’s. 4. Your graduation gift is __better__ good than mine. 5. My job is __as serious__ serious as yours. 6. He was __more determined__ determined than Joe to win the race. 7. Charlie has grown __as tall__ tall as his brother. 8. She was __as shocked__ shock as I to see the test results. 9. Johnny was __more truthful__ truthful than before in telling his story. 10. I feel __worse__bad today than yesterday.

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112 Exercise 24: Using Comparisons: Than As From 1. A cat is much quicker __than__ a mouse. 2. The dolphins swam as fast __as__ our boat. 3. Jennifer was much more certain of the answer __than__ Julie. 4. My twin cousin is indistinguishable __from__ the other. 5. Unmanned rockets can now travel much further __than__ the moon. 6. John’s speech was much different __from__ mine. 7. The ball game continued much longer __than__ expected. 8. Our cheerleaders were as good __as__ theirs. 9. Nathan was stronger __than__ Michael so he won the match. 10. I think crumpets are much tastier __than__ crepes. Exercise 25: Avoiding Double Negatives 1. Kathy didn’t do nothing. Kathy didn’t do anything. 2. There isn’t no milk in the refrigerator. There isn’t any milk in the refrigerator. OR There is no milk in the refrigerator. 3. I can’t never understand him. I can’t ever understand him. 4. We couldn’t see nothing at the concert. We couldn’t see anything at the concert 5. They didn’t trust nobody. They didn’t trust anybody.

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113 Practice Test 1 Basic Level 6. 1. b 11. b 21. c 31. d 41. d 7. 2. d 12. c 22. e 32. b 42. d 8. 3. a 13. b 23. c 33. c 43. e 9. 4. e 14. e 24. a 34. d 44. c 10. 5. b 15. a 25. d 35. a 45. a 11. 6. e 16. d 26. d 36. e 46. d 12. 7. b 17. e 27. b 37. c 47. b 13. 8. d 18. c 28. e 38. b 48. b 14. 9. c 19. e 29. c 39. a 49. d 15. 10. a 20. b 30. a 40. e 50. e

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114 For GMAT questions suggestions on GMAT Books Tests and GMAT Courses please visit www.gmatclub.com About GMAT Club: Every year brilliant minds of business school applicants develop strategies research school information and master interviews only for the same process to be repeated the following year by the new applicant pool. In 2002 GMAT Club was formed to help preserve the collective knowledge of MBA students – to contribute to each other’s learning. Through information sharing and the development of new resources it is our goal to improve the Business School application process. www.gmatclub.com

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