Chapter 6 EOC

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Effective teachers MANAGE their classroom Ineffective teachers DISCIPLINE their classroom Teachers who are ready maximize student learning and minimize student behavior Quoted by Harry K.Wong & Rosemary T.Wong (1998)

CHAPTER 6ESTABLISHING AN ORGANISED CLASSROOM : 

CHAPTER 6ESTABLISHING AN ORGANISED CLASSROOM AISYAH HANI MOHD HABALI 2006145933 NOR LAILATUL AZILAH HAMDZAH 2006146047 NORAZILA MAT YASIN 2006146055

INTRODUCTION : 

INTRODUCTION Aim: To guide in development of a classroom in which positive behaviours are naturally encouraged and maintained Show how to establish a classroom climate characterised by task orientation and a concern for individual well-being To describe and explain the best practice aspects of classroom organisation that effectively increase amount of high academic learning time (ALT) Focus: Encourage positive behaviour – establish organised classroom as positive learning environment that promote productive activity Achieving greater periods of time – students positively and actively engaged in learning

ADVANCE ORGANISATION OF THE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT : 

ADVANCE ORGANISATION OF THE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT Physical setting: Have powerful influence on behavior, attitudes and expectations Create a set of expectations about socially acceptable behavior children are unpredictable but, they can and do restrict their behavior according to expectations they interpret form the setting Miller (1990) – students who respond to the behavioral expectations in the classroom perform better academically Setting’s features enable children to meet their basic needs.

FACILITATIVE SEATING ARRANGEMENTS : 

FACILITATIVE SEATING ARRANGEMENTS Classroom seating arrangements reflect the teacher’s preferred teaching style Researchers – students seated towards the centre front engage more in teaching-learning interaction than those seated at the periphery Teacher – consider place students with learning difficulties within the instructional focus Selection of seating aligned to best practice if the arrangements facilitate best learning outcomes Teachers are encourage to change the seating from time to time 4 types of seating arrangements: Rows Groups U-shapes Work stations

ROWS : 

ROWS Students seated in rows of single/paired desks – face front of the room Instruction: teacher-centered, desk work to be completed individually Facilitates teacher-students interaction Inhibits student-student interaction (restrict group work) Task focus and maintain order & control

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Row Seating Arrangements

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Row Seating Arrangements

2. GROUPS : 

2. GROUPS Extreme opposite of rows Several desks are grouped together in rectangle or L-shape Instruction: student-centered Issues of visibility and eye contact are important when arranging the tables

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Group Seating Arrangements

3. U-SHAPE : 

3. U-SHAPE Halfway between row and groups Teacher-centered with increased opportunity for student-student interaction Small group can be formed by moving desk together Restriction: many classroom are not large enough for single u-shape Double u-shape: enhance group function, but reduce whole-class discussion + eliminates eye-contact between students

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U-Shape Seating Arrangements

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U-Shape Seating Arrangements

4. WORK STATIONS : 

4. WORK STATIONS Requires students have well self-management skills Appropriate for activity-based classroom – group are functioning at highly independent levels Teacher control is reduced Far harder for teacher to gain eye-contact and to monitor the activity of each student Students do not have personal space – suitable for cooperative learning

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Work Stations Seating Arrangements

EFFICIENT ROOM MOVEMENT : 

EFFICIENT ROOM MOVEMENT Movement corridors – allow access to equipment that is used regularly Entry and exits need to direct students away from other who might be working Teacher movement needs to be managed easily throughout the classroom for effective monitoring of deskwork Weinstein & Migano (1993) – location and storage of students’ work need to be well organised, clearly labelled and easily accessible to groups of childern at a time

ENGAGING CLASSROOM AESTHETICS : 

ENGAGING CLASSROOM AESTHETICS If classroom dull, uninteresting and uninspiring – students experience discomfort because of stimulus deprivation Teacher also need stimulus variation Teacher react more positively to students and experience less stress in more pleasing environment Key factors to establish pleasing environment: Variation in colour Variation space and texture Displays of students’ work, photos, handprints, etc – generate feel of belonging to the classroom Avoid displays that are too attention-grabbing – interfere with students’ ability to concentrate on the learning tasks

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Clear Behavioural Standards Reasons? Guide behaviour positively and clearly Feel more secure as they know the expected behaviour Confusion about behavioural expectations is reduced

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Behavioural Standards Rights and Responsibilities Approach Classroom Code Approach Rules Approach

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DEVELOPING THE CLASSROOM CODE APPROACH STEP 1 Statement of direction – restrict its length to one sentence Developed by teacher STEP 2 Guiding principles and behavioural descriptors using deductive and inductive path

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STEP 3 Each principles – clarified Ambiguities – iron out Reasons – clearly stated Behavioural descriptors – brainstormed STEP 4 Implementation Use of praise

CLEAR ROUTINES & PROCEDURES : 

CLEAR ROUTINES & PROCEDURES Definition of procedures: Routines that call for specified times or during particular activities. (Levin & Folan, 2000) Routines used to accomplish work and other activity (Arends, 1997) Definition of routine What the students do automatically (Wong & Wong, 1998) It becomes the habit

GAINING ATTENTION : 

GAINING ATTENTION Usually Ss will raise their hand if they want T’s attention. The T’s cues for gaining the Ss attention need to be explained. It changes regularly but it needs to be established regularly. Ex: bell, one hand raised, hand claps, turning off music playing during noisier activities and etc.

TRANSITIONS : 

TRANSITIONS Transitions between teacher-directed and student-directed activities Important to save lesson time and prevent misbehavior SPECIFIC INSTRUCTIONAL PROCEDURES There will be specific procedures followed. Depend totally on the nature of learning activity Scan the class to praise students who are on-task Identify any potential cause of disruption that can be corrected early.

MOVEMENTS : 

MOVEMENTS There are a lot of movements around the school environment like whole class, groups and individual btwn CR and activity areas. Controlled the Ss’ movement and closely supervised. Ts move from more restrictive to less restrictive supervision.

“HOUSEKEEPING” : 

“HOUSEKEEPING” Important to have regular housekeeping routines and procedures established early in the school. Usually facilitative to encourage the Ss to take responsibility for and pride in a safe, tidy CR and personal workplace. Example: Duty Roster

FINAL NOTE : 

FINAL NOTE To develop solutions for potentially time wasting or conflict-producing disturbances. All Ts introduced routine and procedures to support learning. Ts should involve the Ss in decisions about which procedures to adopt

STUDENTS METHODS FOR GETTING THE TEACHERS’ ATTENTION WITHOUT INTERRUPTING THE CLASS. : 

Sources by Harry K. Wong and Rosemary T. Wong, The First Days of School (1998) STUDENTS METHODS FOR GETTING THE TEACHERS’ ATTENTION WITHOUT INTERRUPTING THE CLASS.

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SEVERAL STRATEGIES CAN BE USED BY TEACHERS: Write key steps on the chalkboard or on charts. Move quickly to the location where your team’s name has been posted on the wall. Choose one team members to come up to my desk to gather needed learning materials. Spend 10 minutes reading your particular assignment. At my signal, begin your discussions. At my signal, return to your learning team and start presenting your information. State directions clearly and ask 2 or 3 Ss to paraphrase the directions. Identify a location for each learning team and have that clearly marked Source is taken from Richard I. Arends, Classroom Instruction Management (1997)

SUMMARY : 

SUMMARY This chapter has focused on the last 4 key preventative practice in the model. The establishment, teaching & consistent implementation of CR standard is crucial The T should has consistency in organisation of the physical CR environment, transparent behavioral standards, and clear routine procedure (along with teaching style). The T should plan advance organisation carefully. Clear routine & procedure need to be implement as early as possible in the school year.

References : 

References Lyons et al (2003). Classroom Management. Cengage Learning: Australia T.Wong, Rosemary & K.Wong, Harry (1998). How To Be An Effective Teacher, The First Day of School. Harry K.Wong Publication: CA Levin, James & Nolan, James F (2000). Principle Of Classroom Management. A Pearson Education Company: MA Arends, Richard I ( 1997). Classroom Instruction and Management. Mc Graw Hill: USA http://www.youtube.com/