Slide 1: Effective teachers MANAGE their classroom
Ineffective teachers DISCIPLINE their classroom Teachers who are ready maximize student learning and minimize student behavior Quoted by Harry K.Wong & Rosemary T.Wong (1998) CHAPTER 6ESTABLISHING AN ORGANISED CLASSROOM : CHAPTER 6ESTABLISHING AN ORGANISED CLASSROOM AISYAH HANI MOHD HABALI 2006145933
NOR LAILATUL AZILAH HAMDZAH 2006146047
NORAZILA MAT YASIN 2006146055 INTRODUCTION : INTRODUCTION Aim:
To guide in development of a classroom in which positive behaviours are naturally encouraged and maintained
Show how to establish a classroom climate characterised by task orientation and a concern for individual well-being
To describe and explain the best practice aspects of classroom organisation that effectively increase amount of high academic learning time (ALT)
Encourage positive behaviour – establish organised classroom as positive learning environment that promote productive activity
Achieving greater periods of time – students positively and actively engaged in learning ADVANCE ORGANISATION OF THE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT : ADVANCE ORGANISATION OF THE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT Physical setting:
Have powerful influence on behavior, attitudes and expectations
Create a set of expectations about socially acceptable behavior children are unpredictable but, they can and do restrict their behavior according to expectations they interpret form the setting
Miller (1990) – students who respond to the behavioral expectations in the classroom perform better academically
Setting’s features enable children to meet their basic needs. FACILITATIVE SEATING ARRANGEMENTS : FACILITATIVE SEATING ARRANGEMENTS Classroom seating arrangements reflect the teacher’s preferred teaching style
Researchers – students seated towards the centre front engage more in teaching-learning interaction than those seated at the periphery
Teacher – consider place students with learning difficulties within the instructional focus
Selection of seating aligned to best practice if the arrangements facilitate best learning outcomes
Teachers are encourage to change the seating from time to time
4 types of seating arrangements:
Work stations ROWS : ROWS Students seated in rows of single/paired desks – face front of the room
Instruction: teacher-centered, desk work to be completed individually
Facilitates teacher-students interaction
Inhibits student-student interaction (restrict group work)
Task focus and maintain order & control Slide 7: Row Seating Arrangements Slide 8: Row Seating Arrangements 2. GROUPS : 2. GROUPS Extreme opposite of rows
Several desks are grouped together in rectangle or L-shape
Issues of visibility and eye contact are important when arranging the tables Slide 10: Group Seating Arrangements 3. U-SHAPE : 3. U-SHAPE Halfway between row and groups
Teacher-centered with increased opportunity for student-student interaction
Small group can be formed by moving desk together
Restriction: many classroom are not large enough for single u-shape
Double u-shape: enhance group function, but reduce whole-class discussion + eliminates eye-contact between students Slide 12: U-Shape Seating Arrangements Slide 13: U-Shape Seating Arrangements 4. WORK STATIONS : 4. WORK STATIONS Requires students have well self-management skills
Appropriate for activity-based classroom – group are functioning at highly independent levels
Teacher control is reduced
Far harder for teacher to gain eye-contact and to monitor the activity of each student
Students do not have personal space – suitable for cooperative learning Slide 15: Work Stations Seating Arrangements EFFICIENT ROOM MOVEMENT : EFFICIENT ROOM MOVEMENT Movement corridors – allow access to equipment that is used regularly
Entry and exits need to direct students away from other who might be working
Teacher movement needs to be managed easily throughout the classroom for effective monitoring of deskwork
Weinstein & Migano (1993) – location and storage of students’ work need to be well organised, clearly labelled and easily accessible to groups of childern at a time ENGAGING CLASSROOM AESTHETICS : ENGAGING CLASSROOM AESTHETICS If classroom dull, uninteresting and uninspiring – students experience discomfort because of stimulus deprivation
Teacher also need stimulus variation
Teacher react more positively to students and experience less stress in more pleasing environment
Key factors to establish pleasing environment:
Variation in colour
Variation space and texture
Displays of students’ work, photos, handprints, etc – generate feel of belonging to the classroom
Avoid displays that are too attention-grabbing – interfere with students’ ability to concentrate on the learning tasks Slide 18: Clear Behavioural Standards Reasons? Guide behaviour positively and clearly
Feel more secure as they know the expected behaviour
Confusion about behavioural expectations is reduced Slide 19: Behavioural Standards Rights and Responsibilities Approach Classroom Code Approach Rules Approach Slide 21: DEVELOPING THE CLASSROOM CODE APPROACH STEP 1
Statement of direction – restrict its length to one sentence
Developed by teacher STEP 2
Guiding principles and behavioural descriptors using deductive and inductive path Slide 22: STEP 3
Each principles – clarified
Ambiguities – iron out
Reasons – clearly stated
Behavioural descriptors – brainstormed STEP 4
Use of praise CLEAR ROUTINES & PROCEDURES : CLEAR ROUTINES & PROCEDURES Definition of procedures:
Routines that call for specified times or during particular activities. (Levin & Folan, 2000)
Routines used to accomplish work and other activity (Arends, 1997)
Definition of routine
What the students do automatically (Wong & Wong, 1998)
It becomes the habit GAINING ATTENTION : GAINING ATTENTION Usually Ss will raise their hand if they want T’s attention.
The T’s cues for gaining the Ss attention need to be explained.
It changes regularly but it needs to be established regularly.
Ex: bell, one hand raised, hand claps, turning off music playing during noisier activities and etc. TRANSITIONS : TRANSITIONS Transitions between teacher-directed and student-directed activities
Important to save lesson time and prevent misbehavior SPECIFIC INSTRUCTIONAL PROCEDURES There will be specific procedures followed.
Depend totally on the nature of learning activity
Scan the class to praise students who are on-task
Identify any potential cause of disruption that can be corrected early. MOVEMENTS : MOVEMENTS There are a lot of movements around the school environment like whole class, groups and individual btwn CR and activity areas.
Controlled the Ss’ movement and closely supervised.
Ts move from more restrictive to less restrictive supervision. “HOUSEKEEPING” : “HOUSEKEEPING” Important to have regular housekeeping routines and procedures established early in the school.
Usually facilitative to encourage the Ss to take responsibility for and pride in a safe, tidy CR and personal workplace.
Example: Duty Roster FINAL NOTE : FINAL NOTE To develop solutions for potentially time wasting or conflict-producing disturbances.
All Ts introduced routine and procedures to support learning.
Ts should involve the Ss in decisions about which procedures to adopt STUDENTS METHODS FOR GETTING THE TEACHERS’ ATTENTION WITHOUT INTERRUPTING THE CLASS. : Sources by Harry K. Wong and Rosemary T. Wong, The First Days of School (1998) STUDENTS METHODS FOR GETTING THE TEACHERS’ ATTENTION WITHOUT INTERRUPTING THE CLASS. Slide 30: SEVERAL STRATEGIES CAN BE USED BY TEACHERS:
Write key steps on the chalkboard or on charts.
Move quickly to the location where your team’s name has been posted on the wall.
Choose one team members to come up to my desk to gather needed learning materials.
Spend 10 minutes reading your particular assignment.
At my signal, begin your discussions.
At my signal, return to your learning team and start presenting your information.
State directions clearly and ask 2 or 3 Ss to paraphrase the directions.
Identify a location for each learning team and have that clearly marked Source is taken from Richard I. Arends, Classroom Instruction Management (1997) SUMMARY : SUMMARY This chapter has focused on the last 4 key preventative practice in the model.
The establishment, teaching & consistent implementation of CR standard is crucial
The T should has consistency in organisation of the physical CR environment, transparent behavioral standards, and clear routine procedure (along with teaching style).
The T should plan advance organisation carefully.
Clear routine & procedure need to be implement as early as possible in the school year. References : References Lyons et al (2003). Classroom Management. Cengage Learning: Australia
T.Wong, Rosemary & K.Wong, Harry (1998). How To Be An Effective Teacher, The First Day of School. Harry K.Wong Publication: CA
Levin, James & Nolan, James F (2000). Principle Of Classroom Management. A Pearson Education Company: MA
Arends, Richard I ( 1997). Classroom Instruction and Management. Mc Graw Hill: USA