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Slide 1: 

Supplementation of poor quality roughage with urea molasses mineral blocks for improving health and production of ruminants Usha R. Mehra Professor & Head Animal Nutrition Division IVRI, Izatnagar-243 122

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Introduction Ruminants third world countries poor quality crop residues- Deficient in nitrogen, minerals and vitamins - Unique ability to convert NPN compounds microbial protein of high biological values - UMMB developed supplement ruminants fed poor quality roughages - Problem- great diurnal variation composition degree of Hardness of UMMB

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- Three procedures established urea-animals consuming low N diets (a) Spray urea on straw The other two free choice system molasses used vehicle for urea (b) Liquid mixtures of urea & molasses (urea 8-10%) (c) Solidified blocks containing same or higher urea contents

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- UMMB – attractive palatable –smell taste of molasses - Animals- lick UMMB frequent intervals-available nutrients rumen micro-organisms/host animal. - Important feature- animals, consuming fibrous crop residues low in N (straw) -  Primary purpose-provide NH3 rumen micro-organisms - Provide broad spectrum trace minerals & major minerals (S&K) serve carrier for wide range compds (eg. Small peptides and amino acids, branched chain fatty acids, phosphorus, anthelminthics, even chemicals & compds plant orignin- used for manipulating rumen fermentation

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Operation flood programme (FAO/IND/78/007) UMMB fed young Jersey bulls later milking buffaloes receiving basal diet rice straw - Subsequently, villages relatively wealthy (able to afford concentrates) Poor (unable to afford concentrates) -  Rich villages –aim to reduce concentrate - Poor villages- Objective to stimulate the utilization of straw by buffaloes by so doing increase milk production. - Both villages, blocks were supplied to buffaloes owned by 10 families. Background Research

Growth trialsIntake of Rice straw by Jersey bulls (350 kg w.wt.) Kunju 1983 & Leng and Preston 1984 : 

Growth trialsIntake of Rice straw by Jersey bulls (350 kg w.wt.) Kunju 1983 & Leng and Preston 1984 * Straw intake marginally increased * Three fold gain in B. wt.

Feed intake and B. wt. Changes in lambs given W. straw and supplemented with urea (2% of the straw), UMMB (ad lib) & or cotton seed meal (150 g/d) : 

Feed intake and B. wt. Changes in lambs given W. straw and supplemented with urea (2% of the straw), UMMB (ad lib) & or cotton seed meal (150 g/d) * Measured 3h after feeding

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Milk production trials Leng 1984 UMMB supplement to basal diet saved concentrate needed to maintain milk yield in buffaloes Toxicity -Concern expressed by technical advisor about the over consumption, danger of toxicity from NH3. - Initially blocks prepared with 10% urea subsequently 20% urea blocks were used.

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- In a herd of adult buffaloes same animals adapt immediately (50%) others took 14 days before appreciable quantity consumed. - 3000 buffaloes fed UMMB (20% urea) considerable increase in productivity NH3 toxicity is not a problem- because of slow rate of intake. - Buffalo maintained throughout pregnancy and lactation, conceived second time indicating no long term ill effects from UMMB.

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Village studies Block technology extensively evaluated in several villages of India from both animal production and socio economic view point. Records of milk sales prior and after introduction of UMMB indicates - Where high-concentrate feeding was practiced block allowed farmer to reduce dependence on concentrates thus increasing profitability. - Where buffaloes largely maintained straw & other supplements UMMB resulted in marked increases in straw intake and an improvement in milk yield of 50-100% (Fig.1)

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- Data take records of sales and composition of milk– milk yield increased 1.5 to 2.4 litres/day. - In villages developmental activities confirmed to tethered animals. - Animals grazed on communal lands housed (& fed crop residues) at night blocks may be fed in pens & sheds - When pasture is dry & low in N then it is preferable

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The potential of blocks in management of village animals includes · Administration of nutrients · Fermentable N · Trace minerals (eg. Co, Zn, Se, Cu) · Macro minerals (eg. S, Ca, P) · Vitamins (eg. A & D) ·Small quantities of protein to provide amino acids, peptides, branched chain acids and other branched chain acids and other essential nutrients for microorganisms.

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· Administration of chemicals to manipulate rumen fermentation · Anti-Protozoa agents ·  Methane inhibitors (eg. Monensin) · Enzyme inhibitors to reduce break down of soluble proteins and amino acids · Administration of drugs either over a short or a prolonged period for control of: ·  * Flukes ·  Ticks ·  Endo-parasites

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· Vaccine · Administration of hormones for manipulation of growth lactation and reproduction. · Administration of chemicals to control fly development in faeces (Important for human health. ·  Future targets at village level ensure that the chemical, drug or hormone is protected from rumen fermentation or from digestive enzymes and for it to be absorbed effectively.

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· Possibility of incorporation into the block of chemicals or drugs to manipulate digestive functions and/or to control parasites and diseases would make easy for farmers to take advantage of any innovations. · NDDB has taken lead to apply the technology but the technology could not be propagated in other part of the country. · Block technology appears to be acceptable readily with no socio-economic constraints. One of the advantage of technology is the application of scientific principles of optimizing use of available resources (straw, indigenous animals and the small holder farmer).

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Prospects of supplementation of UMMB - It is well established that urea molasses mix provide additional nutrition and enhance the utilization of roughages - Liquid supplementary mix system has several limitations – such as handling, transport & hygeine - Objective is to provide supplementary nutrition. - Purpose is defeated if the blocks are not hard enough, care needs to be exercised so that are meant only to serve as licks. - It release urea-N more slowly frequently as to minimize the change of ammonia toxicity.

Urea Molasses Mineral blockHot Process TechnologyNDDB (Block) : 

Urea Molasses Mineral blockHot Process TechnologyNDDB (Block)

Production ResultsManually by two labourers 200 blocks can be preparedAverage Palatability : 

Production ResultsManually by two labourers 200 blocks can be preparedAverage Palatability IVRI block can be preserved at room temperature years together Source I Absorb moisture at room temp. Source II Very hard and brittle hence licking very poor

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Problems * The degree of hardness may decide the voluntary intake * Composition of block especially urea affect feed consumption * 40% of animals start licking at first instance * 1 kg consumption (Buffalo) 0.5 kg cross bred cattle and 0.53 Jersey bulls

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Advantage of technology 1. Ingredients are easily available in almost all parts of India. 2. Method of preparation is very easy. 3. UMMB prepared by this method has long self life on storage at a dry place. 4. Density of UMMB is much higher than the ingredients, which facilitates long distance transportation, at a cheaper rate.

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5. UMMB blocks are suitable for supplementing dry fodder based diets for sustainability of ruminants during droughts and floods. 6. Licks are hard enough to control gradual intake limited to about 700g in adult bovines and 800-1000g in growing bovines of about 200 kg body weights. 7. UMMB is much cheaper than the conventional source of intact proteins (Oil cakes).

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Precautions while using UMMB & their utility Safety measures: 1. UMMB should not have more than 10% moisture. 2. UMMB should be stored at a dry place protected from rodents. 3. UMMB should be offered to the animal in the dry manger and wetting should be prevented. In contact with moisture it may become soft to facilitate swallowing.

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Utility and product quality: 1. UMMB supplies greater amount of protein through gradual licking. 2. It also supplies essential minerals. 3. It improves nutritional availability for ruminants and facilitates some level of production in addition to maintenance. 4. Feeding of UMMB as lick is safe and incidence of sudden abnormally high intake is remote if prepared with proper care. 5. In addition to NPN it also supplies same intact protein, minerals, vitamins and energy.

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Effect of urea molasses block supplementation on animal performance Supplementation on animal performance Factors affecting the intake of block Effect of urea-molasses lick on total DM intake The improvement in the feeding value of wheat straw through supplementation with UMMB & Fish meal demonstrated.

Effect of block intake on ADG : 

Effect of block intake on ADG

Changes in body weight and daily feed intake in experimental animals : 

Changes in body weight and daily feed intake in experimental animals a,b,c Values bearing different superscript in a row differ significantly, **P<0.01

Effect of dietary urea levels on UMMB intake and its utilization : 

Effect of dietary urea levels on UMMB intake and its utilization

Effect of work and UMMB supplementation on live weight and milk yield of Murrah buffalo calves Change of live weight (LW) during the period, daily yields of milk, butter fat, lactose and protein, and daily fodder and total water intake of buffaloes working in pairs with sledges three hours per day for 3months. : 

Effect of work and UMMB supplementation on live weight and milk yield of Murrah buffalo calves Change of live weight (LW) during the period, daily yields of milk, butter fat, lactose and protein, and daily fodder and total water intake of buffaloes working in pairs with sledges three hours per day for 3months.

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Farmers could use cattle & Buffalo bulls for work and milk production with supplementation of UMMB successfully. Further, long term experiments to study the effect of work and supplementation on reproduction should be undertaken under field conditions. Conclusion

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