ELEMENTS OF RESEARCH METHODS : ELEMENTS OF RESEARCH METHODS Areas for Discussion : Areas for Discussion Meaning of Research.
Definitions of Research.
Significance of Research.
Aims and Objectives of Research.
Motivation for Research.
Research as Method of Science.
Characteristics of Research.
Functions of Research.
Scope of Research.
Classification of Educational Research. Meaning of Research : Meaning of Research A search for knowledge.
A scientific and systematic search for pertinent information on a specific topic.
A careful search or inquiry, endeavour to discover new ideas by scientific study, - a course of critical investigation.
A careful search for solutions to the problems that plague and puzzle the mankind. Definitions of Research : Definitions of Research Advanced Learner’s Dictionary
“A careful investigation or inquiry specially through search for new facts in any branch of knowledge”
Redman and Mory
“A systematized effort to gain new knowledge.”
“ A careful inquiry or examination in seeking facts or principles, a diligent investigation to ascertain something.” Definitions of Research : Definitions of Research C.C. Crawford
“ A systematic and refined technique of thinking, employing specialized tools, instruments and procedures in order to obtain a more adequate solution of a problem than would be possible under ordinary means. It starts with a problem, collects data or facts, analyses them critically and reaches decisions based on the actual evidence”. Significance of Research : Significance of Research “All progress is born of inquiry. Doubt is often better than overconfidence, for it leads to inquiry, and inquiry leads to invention.” Hudson’s Maxim
1.For educationists in studying various educational problems and in seeking answers to various educational problems.
2.For social scientists in studying social relationships and in seeking answers to various social problems.
3.Provides the basis for nearly all government policies in our economic system. Significance of Research… : Significance of Research… 4.For solving various operational and planning problems of business and industry.
5.It inculcates scientific and inductive thinking.
6.It promotes the development of logical habits of thinking and organization.
7.To understand the new developments in one’s filed in a better way. **Significance of Research…** : **Significance of Research…** An outlet for new ideas and insights to philosophers and thinkers.
For the development of new styles and creative work to literary persons.
For the generalizations of new theories to analysts and intellectuals.
For research scholars it is a way to attain a high position in the social structure.
A source of livelihood to professionals in research methodology. Aims and Objectives of Research : Aims and Objectives of Research General Aims
To find out the truth which is hidden and which has not been discovered as yet.
To discover answers to questions through the application of scientific procedures. Objectives of Research : Objectives of Research To gain familiarity with a phenomenon or to achieve new insights into it. (Exploratory or Formulative)
To portray accurately the characteristics of a particular individual, situation or a group. (Descriptive)
To determine the frequency with which something occurs or with which it is associated with something else. (Diagnostic)
To test hypothesis of a casual relationship between variables. (Hypothesis-testing) Motivation for Research : Motivation for Research Desire to get a research degree.
Desire to face the challenge in solving the unsolved problems.
Desire to get intellectual joy of doing some creative work.
Desire to be of service to society.
Desire to get respectability. Motivation for Research…. : Motivation for Research…. Desire to understand casual relationships.
Directions from government.
Curiosity about new things.
Social thinking and awakening. Research as Method of Science : Research as Method of Science Evolution of Human Thinking
Man has appealed to the following sources of evidence in his search for truth.
Custom and tradition.
Reasoning from self-evident propositions.
Deductive thinking. Research as Method of Science…. : Research as Method of Science…. Characteristics of Scientific Thinking
Science is based on facts.
Science employs the method of analysis.
Science employs hypotheses.
Science is free from emotional bias.
Science employs objective measurement.
Science uses quantitative methods in the treatment of data. Research as Method of Science… : Research as Method of Science… Steps in the Process of Scientific Thinking
Location of a problem.
Survey of past experiences with the problem.
Formation of hypothesis.
Collection of data for checking hypothesis.
Analysis, classification and summarization of the data collected.
Formulation of new generalizations, or scientific law. Characteristics of Research : Characteristics of Research Research is expert, systematic and accurate investigation.
Research is logical and objective.
Research gathers knowledge or data from primary or first had sources.
Research endeavours to organize data in quantitative terms as far possible.
Research is highly purposive.
Research maintains rigorous standards. Characteristics of Research : Characteristics of Research Research places emphasis upon the discovery of general principles and scientific generalizations.
Research requires courage.
Research is patient and unhurried.
Research usually involves, as a step, a hypothesis or a set of hypotheses.
Research is carefully recorded and reported. Specific Characteristics of Educational Research : Specific Characteristics of Educational Research A sound philosophy of education forms the basis of educational research.
It needs imagination and insight as much as scientific attitude of mind.
It requires an interdisciplinary approach.
It usually employs deductive reasoning.
It is not as exact as research in physical science. Specific Characteristics of Educational Research….. : Specific Characteristics of Educational Research….. It comes out of a desire to do things better.
It is not the field of the specialist only.
It generally requires inexpensive material.
It is incapable of being dealt through empirical methods. (Qualitative)
It is based on interdependence of causes and effect.
Educational research cannot be a mechanical process. Functions of Educational Research : Functions of Educational Research General Functions
Help the man to enhance his abilities and powers freeing him from the limitations imposed by ignorance.
Development and reconstruction of the theories.
Test the validity of the theories.
Generate knowledge and promote educational practice. Functions of Educational Research : Functions of Educational Research Functions for a teacher
Increase the efficiency of the teachers.
Make the teachers aware of the ways in which psychological laws governing educational practices.
Enable the teachers to understand and evaluate the professional literature critically.
Keep the teachers abreast of new trends in the field of education. Functions of Educational Research : Functions of Educational Research Functions for a teacher…..
Help in making wise educational decisions.
Improvement of the over-all system of education.
Invention of and testing new educational experiments.
Realization of the goal of universalisation of education.
Bringing a new social order. Scope of Educational Research : Scope of Educational Research Two questions to determine the scope;
What are the limits of its field of operations?
What is to be included in its study?
Scope of Educational Research can be viewed from;
1. Types of Research
2. Area of Education Scope of Educational Research… : Scope of Educational Research… Types of Research
I. Classification based on ‘goal or objective’
II. Classification based on ‘methodology’.
Experimental Research. Scope of Educational Research… : Scope of Educational Research… Types of Research
Classification based on ‘goal or objective’
Fundamental Research (Basic/Pure)
Aims at obtaining empirical data that can be used to formulate, expand or evaluate a theory.
Creation of knowledge solely for the sake of knowledge.
Not concerned with the solution of immediate practical problems. Scope of Educational Research… Types of Research.. : Scope of Educational Research… Types of Research.. Classification based on ‘goal or objective’
Applied Research. (Field)
Directed towards the solution of a specific and practical problem.
Testing of theories or laws in the actual field setting.
Devoted to the solution of the problems of filed workers or other affected individuals. Scope of Educational Research… Types of Research.. : Scope of Educational Research… Types of Research.. Classification based on ‘goal or objective’
Focused on the immediate application and not on the development of a theory.
Purpose:- Improvement of institutional practices.
Emphasis on decentralization of decision making and action. Scope of Educational Research… Types of Research.. : Scope of Educational Research… Types of Research.. Classification based on ‘methodology’.
Describes ‘What was’.
Purpose:- to arrive at an exact account of the past, to build a perspective about the present, to predict and control our future activities.
Process:- Investigation – Analyzing -- Interpretation – Generalization -- Recording. Scope of Educational Research… Types of Research.. : Scope of Educational Research… Types of Research.. Classification based on ‘methodology’
Describes ‘What is’.
Purpose:- To discover the relationship between the existing variables.
Process:- Description – Analysis – Interpretation - Recording. Scope of Educational Research… Types of Research.. : Scope of Educational Research… Types of Research.. Classification based on ‘methodology’
Describes ‘What will be’ when certain variables are carefully controlled or manipulated.
Purpose:- Examine the impact of one set of variables on another set of variables.
Process:- Experiments – Analysis – Interpretation – Generalization – Recording. Scope of Educational Research : Scope of Educational Research II. Area of Education
Higher Secondary education.
Teacher Education. Scope of Educational ResearchArea of Education….. : Scope of Educational ResearchArea of Education….. Psychology of Education.
Philosophy of Education.
Technology of Education.
Sociology of Education.
Economics of Education.
Science Education. Mathematics Education.
Social Science Education.
Comparative Education. Scope of Educational ResearchArea of Education….. : Scope of Educational ResearchArea of Education….. Special Education.
Guidance and Counseling.
Evaluation. Non-Formal Education.
Physical & Health Education.
History of Education.