pollution of air and water

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SCIENCE PROJECT WORK:

SCIENCE PROJECT WORK TOPIC :- POLLUTION OF AIR AND WATER CLASS -VIII PREPARED BY :-1)ASHISH SHARMA

What is Pollution ?:

All living organisms depend upon balanced environment for growth, development, and reproduction. All the components required by the organisms are present in the environment gets disturbed for one reason or the other survival of living organisms becomes difficult. The balance of the environment may be disturbed by the entrance of some harmful and some unwanted components in the environment .These unwanted, harmful make the environment polluted. These is called pollution What is Pollution ?

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Thus, any undesirable change of the physical, chemical or biological characteristics of the environment, which is harmful to man directly or indirect through animals, plants, industrial units or raw materials, is called pollution. The substance which contaminate air, water and soil are called pollutants. These pollutants can be classified into two groups: Biodegradable pollutants Non-biodegradable pollutants.

HOW DOES AIR GET POLLUTED?:

HOW DOES AIR GET POLLUTED? The substances which contaminate the air are called air pollutants. Sometimes, such substances may come from natural sources like smoke and dust arising from forest fires or volcanic eruptions. Pollutants are also added to the atmosphere by human activities. The sources of air pollutants are factories power plants, automobile exhausts and burning of firewood and dung cakes.

Air Pollution :

Air Pollution Air pollution is the introduction of chemicals , particulate matter , or biological materials that cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living organisms, or cause damage to the natural environment or built environment , into the atmosphere . The atmosphere is a complex dynamic natural gaseous system that is essential to support life on planet Earth . Stratospheric ozone depletion due to air pollution has long been recognized as a threat to human health as well as to the Earth's ecosystems . Indoor air pollution and urban air quality are listed as two of the world's worst pollution problems in the 2008 Blacksmith Institute World's Worst Polluted Places report. [1]

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Water pollution :

Water pollution Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies (e.g. lakes , rivers , oceans and groundwater ). Water pollution occurs when pollutants are discharged directly or indirectly into water bodies without adequate treatment to remove harmful compounds. Water pollution affects plants and organisms living in these bodies of water . In almost all cases the effect is damaging not only to individual species and populations, but also to the natural biological communities .

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Water pollution is a major global problem which requires ongoing evaluation and revision of water resource policy at all levels (international down to individual aquifers and wells). It has been suggested that it is the leading worldwide cause of deaths and diseases, [1] [2] and that it accounts for the deaths of more than 14,000 people daily. [2] An estimated 700 million Indians have no access to a proper toilet, and 1,000 Indian children die of diarrheal sickness every day. [3] Some 90% of China 's cities suffer from some degree of water pollution, [4] and nearly 500 million people lack access to safe drinking water. [5] In addition to the acute problems of water pollution in developing countries , industrialized countries continue to struggle with pollution problems as well. In the most recent national report on water quality in the United States , 45 percent of assessed stream miles, 47 percent of assessed lake acres , and 32 percent of assessed bay and estuarine square miles were classified as polluted. [6]

Case Study : The Taj Mahal:

Case Study : The Taj Mahal Over the past 2 decades, India’s most famous tourist attraction, Taj Mahal located in Agra has become a matter of concern. Experts have warned that pollutants in air are discolouring its white marble. So, it is not only living organisms that get affected by polluted air but non-living things like buildings, monuments and statues also get affected. The industries located in and around Agra like rubber processing, automobile, chemicals and especially the Mathura oil refinery , have been responsible for producing pollutants like sulphur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide. These gases react with the water vapour present in the atmosphere to form sulphuric acid and nitric acid. The acids drop down with rain , making the rain acidic. This is called acid rain. Acid rain corrodes the marble of the monument. The phenomenon is also called “ Marble cancer ”. Suspended particulate matter, such as the soot particles emitted by Mathura oil refinery, has contributed towards yellowing of the marble.

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