APUSH_Lec__15a_Andrew_Jackson_1

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Andrew Jackson: 1767 - 1845 President: 1829 - 1837

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Essential Question Champion of the “Common Man”? “King” Andrew? OR

Jackson’s Top Ten:

Jackson’s Top Ten 10. Andrew Jackson was the first President from a state west of the Appalachian Mountains. 9. Andrew Jackson was the first Tennessean to serve in the U.S. House of Representatives. 8. Andrew Jackson was the first territorial Governor of Florida. 7. Andrew Jackson was the first person to serve as a U.S. Representative, Senator, and President. 6. Andrew Jackson exercised his veto power 12 times as President, more than all of his predecessors combined.

Jackson’s Top Ten:

Jackson’s Top Ten 5. Andrew Jackson was the first President to articulate that as President he represented all the people and the will of the majority must govern. 4. Andrew Jackson helped found and was the first U.S. President to represent the Democratic Party . 3. Andrew Jackson is the only U.S. President to be censured by the U.S. Senate. The censure ( official criticism ) was cancelled in the last year of his presidency.

Jackson’s Top Ten:

Jackson’s Top Ten 2. The first assassination attempt on a sitting U.S. President occurred on January 30, 1835, when Robert Lawrence failed to slay Andrew Jackson. 1. Andrew Jackson was the only President in American History to pay off the national debt and leave office with the country in the black.

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What were the democratic (Egalitarian) trends between 1800 to 1830?

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Population shift and West becomes politically powerful Jackson appealed to the Common Man because he was one.

voting:

1790 voting WMA 21 yrs. old, educated and property owner……. Land easy to obtain, property qualifications and education dropped.

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Voter Turnout: 1820 - 1860 26.9 57.4 55.4 57.8 80.2 78.9 72.7 69.6 78.9 81.2

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The Age of Jackson and the Rise of the Common Man The Planter Elite in the South People on the Frontier State Politicians – spoils system Immigrants in the cities.

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Jackson’s Faith in the Common Man Intense distrust of Eastern “establishment,” monopolies, & special privilege. His heart & soul was with the “plain folk.” Belief that the common man was capable of uncommon achievements.

Common man cluster:

Rise of the Common Man and The New Democracy Bricklayers Blacksmith Farmers Carpenters The Working Class Powerful movement in the country to expand involvement and participation of the common man in democracy. Land easy to obtain in the West so property qualifications were dropped Education not as important Common Man and the west become politically powerful Jackson brought democracy to the Common man Jackson stood for the common man which was most of the population Other Common Men in US History: Davy Crockett Sam Houston Common man cluster

The Rise of a Democratic Society :

The Rise of a Democratic Society European visitors to the U.S. in the 1830s were amazed by the informal manners and democratic attitudes of Americans Alex de Tocqueville The hero of the age was the “self-made man”

New Democracy:

NEW DEMOCRACY JEFFERSONIAN DEMOCRACY People should be governed as little possible JACKSONIAN DEMOCRACY Whatever governing needed to be done, it should be done by the common man. “Government by the majority of people; instead of a government governed by the upper class was introduced during Jackson’s Presidency. New Democracy Property ownership/education not needed to vote Growth of political power of the working class Increased number of elected officials Land easy to get out West Ideas of the DOI become important and people saw inequalities in society .

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Jackson's Early Life

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JACKSON THE MAN jackson the man Born March 15, 1767, on North Carolina/South Carolina border Father died when was baby. Read a copy of the DOI to the townspeople who were illiterate. Hated the British and blamed them for the death of his mother and brother. Orphaned at 13, self-educated and no formal education Did not care for President Washington Called him an “ aristo ” (short for aristocrat or “upper class, wealthy and rules”)

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Jackson’s First Hermitage Residence Born in the Carolinas and moved to Hermitage, Tennessee

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JACKSON THE MAN Emotional, arrogant and passionate. Dueled---could drink, smoke, curse and fight with the best of them Lawyer, Judge, senator, general and finally President First president from the West Appealed to the Common Man because he was one…… jackson the man

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General Jackson’s Military Career Defeated the Creeks at Horseshoe Bend in 1814 Defeated the British at New Orleans in 1815 Took Florida and claimed it for the US in 1819. Loved by his soldiers called him “Old Hickory”

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JACKSON THE MAN 1824, Thomas Jefferson said of Jackson “When I was President of the Senate he was a Senator; and he could never speak on account of the rashness of his feelings. I have seen him attempt it repeatedly, and as often choke with rage. His passions are no doubt cooler now…. BUT HE IS A DANGEROUS MAN.” jackson the man

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Jackson's First Presidential Run

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Jackson’s Opponents in 1824 Henry Clay [KY] John Quincy Adams [MA] John C. Calhoun [SC] William H. Crawford [GA]

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Even with Jackson winning the popular vote, he had to win the electoral vote as well. There were 261 total electoral votes and Jackson needed 131 to win the electoral vote and the election. Jackson did not receive a majority of electoral votes to win the election. Sent to the House of Representatives to choose the president. The Election of 1824 ADAMS VS. JACKSON 261 electoral votes and 131 needed to win.

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Was there a “Corrupt Bargain” in the 1824 Election?”

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The Corrupt Bargain Henry Clay gives his support to John Adams and the House of Representatives chooses Adams as the President . Two weeks later, Adams appoints Henry Clay as his Secretary of State …. Jackson cries out corruption and calls this the “ Corrupt Bargain. ” Jackson promises he would run again for the Presidency in 1828 and would smash Adams. ADAMS VS JACKSON corrupt

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The Corrupt Bargain Suspicions of a “corrupt bargain” have been strengthened by entries in the diary of John Q. Adams. On January 1, 1825, after a public dinner, he wrote, “He (Clay) told me (in a whisper) that he should be glad to have with me soon some confidential conversation upon public affairs. I said I should be happy to have it whenever it might suit his convenience.” In the diary entry for January 9, reads in part, “Mr. Clay came at six and spent the evening with me in a long conversation explanatory of the past and prospective of the future.” Exactly a month later, with Clay’s backing, Adams was elected. This happened because Clay was Speaker of the House…..They also hated Andrew Jackson…... corrupt1

John Quincy Adams:

John Quincy Adams One of the ablest men, hardest workers, and finest intellectuals ever in the White House. Tried to promote not only manufacturing and agriculture, but also the arts, literature, and science. But he lacked the common touch and refused to play the game of politics. Most found him cold and tactless. Could not build any popular support for his programs.

John Quincy Adams:

Successful as Sec. of State Not popular, failed to relate the common man. Supported protective tariff, BUS and internal improvements Minority president, last of the Federalists and connection with the Founding Fathers…. John Quincy Adams

John Quincy Adams:

John Quincy Adams The election had united his enemies and was creating a new party system Adams, Clay, and the minority became National-Republicans Jackson and the majority became the Democratic-Republicans (later just Democrats)

New parties:

POLITICAL PARTIES AFTER ELECTION OF 1824 JACKSONIAN DEMOCRACY Political world changed during the New Democracy. Two new political parties emerge New parties NATIONAL REPUBLICANS Adams, Clay and Webster strong national govt. Favored the BUS, tariffs, internal improvements, industry, public schools and moral reforms such as prohibition of liquor and abolition of slavery. Best/privileged run the govt. DEMOCRATS Jackson and Calhoun Believed in state’s rights and federal restraint in economic and social affairs. Favored the liberty of the individual and were fiercely on guard against the inroads of privilege into the government. Protected the common man.

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What were the key issues in 1828? End corruption in Washington, D.C. Reform and eliminate the National debt The People vs. Special Interests Against King Caucus

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Rachel Jackson Final Divorce Decree

Election of 1828:

Election of 1828 An American Tragedy Jackson and J. Q. Adams ran against each other for the presidency One anti-Jackson newspaper declared, “General Jackson’s mother was a common prostitute, brought to this country by the British soldiers! She, afterwards married a mulatto man with whom she had several children, of which one was Andrew Jackson.” Anti-Adams people accused him of hiring a servant girl a visiting Russian ambassador… Adams was accused of gambling in the White House. One of the worst elections in US History for its “ mudslinging .” As a result of this, Jackson’s wife Rachel, died of a heart attack just before he became President…He blamed Adams and Clay and never forgave them….. Election of 1828

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Jackson in Mourning for His Wife Tomb of Jackson and his wife.

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The Election of 1828 Why such a difference between the election of 1824 and 1828? Population shifts to Western States and South which gives the Common Man more political power More men voting in 1828----why? Property restrictions and education dropped. Jackson appealed to common man because he was one. ADAMS VS. JACKSON 261 total electoral votes and 131 electoral votes to win……

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The Election of 1824 The Election of 1828 Election of 1824, 355,817 voted. Election 1828, 1,155,350 voted.

voting:

1790 voting WMA 21 yrs. old, educated and property owner……. Several states would drop property qualifications and education…….

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Caucus ---small group of individuals who would choose a candidate Convention ---members from the political parties nominate a candidate. Eliminated, “King Caucus” Direct Primary - --allow registered voters to participate in choosing a candidate Which of these would be the most democratic way to nominate a candidate for your party to run against the opposition party for public office? ELECTORAL PROCESS 1790 to 1828 1828 to 1900 Current System Used

Inaugural:

Inaugural KING MOB Jackson’s Inaugural was a victory for the Common Man Thousands of commoners came to Washington, D.C. to see Jackson inaugurated……

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Andrew Jackson as President

Eaton:

EATON AFFAIR Peggy (O’Neal) Eaton was the wife of Jackson’s secretary of war (John Eaton) who was the target of malicious gossip by other cabinet wives Jackson became her “champion” and stood up for her because of what happened to his late wife, Rachel…. Eaton

Eaton:

EATON AFFAIR When Jackson tried to force the cabinet wives to accept Eaton socially, most of the cabinet resigned. VP Calhoun resigns and goes back to South Carolina. Jackson creates the “kitchen cabinet” which were informal advisers, Jackson’s “good ole boys”. Eaton

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