Presentation on GSM & CDMA Network : Presentation on GSM & CDMA Network Submitted by: ABHISHEK SHARMA
ECE- VIIA Contents : Contents Basic Landline Architecture
History of GSM
• Technical Specifications
Characteristics and features
Applications BASIC LANDLINE ARCHITECTURE : BASIC LANDLINE ARCHITECTURE LOCAL EXCHANGE MAIN
EXCHANGE MAIN EXCHANGE MAIN EXCHANGE TAX
L2 LOCAL EXCHANGE Slide 4: IN cellular services there are two main complementary network technologies, global system for mobile communication (GSM) and code division multiple access (CDMA). What is GSM ? : What is GSM ? Global System for Mobile (GSM) is a second generation cellular standard developed to cater voice services and data delivery using digital modulation What IS GSM : What IS GSM The full form of GSM is Global system for
Mobile Communication. GSM is one of
the most famous working standards for
mobile phones all over the world.
Over two billion people use the GSM services across 212 countries and
territories in the world. The utility
of GSM makes national and
international roaming very simple and
easy between mobile phone operators,
which enable users to use their cell
phone in various parts of the world. History Of GSM : History Of GSM : Developed by Group Spéciale Mobile (founded 1982)
: Aim : to replace the incompatible analog system First GSM Launched : First GSM Launched 18years ago: the first produced GSM phone
, Nokia launched the world's first commercially available GSM digital phone, the Nokia 1011, the model number coming from the launch date: 10 November 1992.
Nokia's 1011: GSM first
The 475g 1011 was rather heavier than today's slimline models. A lot of the weight came from the unit's nickel-cadmium rechargeable battery, which yielded a low - by today's standards - talk time of just 90 minutes. It could stay operational for 12 hours in stand-by mode.
The 195 x 60 x 45mm handset could hold 99 phone numbers and the names of their owners, any of which could be displayed on the 1011's two-line screen. There was no colour, no camera, no Bluetooth, no memory card slot and the handset had to have an extendible antenna. But it did introduce one innovation that phone owners now use without a second thought: text messaging. GSM Frequency Regions In World : GSM Frequency Regions In World Cellular Architecture : Cellular Architecture 10 Mobile Station Base Station Subsystem Network Subsystem BTS BSC Um MSC Abis A BSC HLR VLR EIR AuC PSTN GSM System Architecture-I : GSM System Architecture-I Mobile Station (MS)
Mobile Equipment (ME)
Subscriber Identity Module (SIM)
Base Station Subsystem (BSS)
Base Transceiver Station (BTS)
Base Station Controller (BSC)
Network Switching Subsystem(NSS)
Mobile Switching Center (MSC)
Home Location Register (HLR)
Visitor Location Register (VLR)
Authentication Center (AUC)
Equipment Identity Register (EIR) System ArchitectureMobile Station (MS) : System ArchitectureMobile Station (MS) The Mobile Station is made up of two entities:
Mobile Equipment (ME)
2. Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) History And Development Of CDMA : History And Development Of CDMA CDMA (Code Division Multiple Assess) is first used in military based communication technology used during World War II by English allies to Stop German attempts to decode transmissions
A Company named Qualcomm created communications chips and designs for CDMA technology and later claimed patents on the technology.
Claude Shannon and Robert Pierce had provided CDMA framework in 1949. Why CDMA? : Why CDMA? C
A ode ivision ultiple ccess CDMA is extremely robust and provides excellent audio quality How CDMA works : How CDMA works 1 Frequency division multiple access (FDMA) 2.Time division multiple access (TDMA) 3.Code division multiple access (CDMA) Thus CDMA is one access technology which cell phones uses to transmit and receive data.. That is FDMA puts each call on a separate frequency and TDMA assigns each call a certain portion of time on a designated frequency for the above mentioned purpose. But CDMA gives a unique code to each call and spreads it over the available frequencies. All these are multiple access systems because more than one user can use the specified At a Time Code Division Multiple Access Principles : Code Division Multiple Access Principles Many voice channels share the same frequency band
No timeslots; all channel uses the same frequency simultaneously all the time
Channels are differentiated by its code
Signaling uses a dedicated frequency band What is Multiple Access? : What is Multiple Access? Since the beginning of telephony and radio, system operators have tried to squeeze the maximum amount of traffic over each circuit Each pair of users enjoys a dedicated, private circuit through the transmission medium, unaware that the other users exist. Multiple Access: Simultaneous private use of a transmission medium by multiple, independent users. Spread Spectrum Principles : Spread Spectrum Principles MATH
HAMMER Spread Spectrum Principles : Spread Spectrum Principles Comparison : Comparison TDMA of GSM.The data transmission in TDMA is actually not continuous. It occurs in bursts. But the time between these bursts for a single mobile phone user is very very short, so that he never knows that the speech of the other person is discontinuous!But the CDMA system has a soft capacity limit. That is increasing the number of users will decreases the system performance.( any comments Reliance users..?..!!). CDMA Ad/Dis : CDMA Ad/Dis Advantages of CDMA include:
Increased cellular communications security.
Low power requirements and little cell-to-cell coordination needed by operators.
Extended reach - beneficial to rural users situated far from cells.
Disadvantages of CDMA include:
CDMA is relatively new, and the network is not as mature as GSM.
CDMA cannot offer international roaming, a large GSM advantage. GSM Ad/Dis : GSM Ad/Dis Advantages of GSM:
GSM is already used worldwide with over millions of subscribers.
International roaming permits subscribers to use one phone throughout Western Europe. CDMA will work in Asia, but not France, Germany, the U.K. and other popular European destinations.
GSM is mature, having started in the mid-80s. This maturity means a more stable network . CDMA is still building its network.
GSM's maturity means engineers cut their teeth on the technology, creating an unconscious preference.
The availability of Subscriber Identity Modules, which are smart cards that provide secure data encryption give GSM advantages.
Disadvantages of GSM:
Lack of access to burgeoning American market Some Facts : Some Facts GSM is a widely spread standard and CDMA is a patented technology. That is you must pay a royalty for using CDMA! . So being a GSM user you have virtually an international roaming. You can easily use a GSM phone in any of Available countries while roaming. GSM users are almost 8 times in number than CDMA users worldwide. By being a GSM user you will be part of the largest mobile community. And coming to voice quality GSM is far better than CDMA. Conclusion : Conclusion In general I say both GSM and CDMA are frontier technologies and both have good and bad qualities. And in the case of mobile handsets the fact is that GSM handsets are very popular and many of the new facilties are readily available in GSM phones with lesser price. The reason is simple...nokia and motorola needs profit...and they will invest more in GSM because GSM has 8 times more users than CDMA.
GSM still holds the upper hand however. There's the numerical advantage for one thing: 456 million GSM users versus CDMA's 82 million Future Of GSM : Future Of GSM 2nd Generation
GSM -9.6 Kbps (data rate)
2.5 Generation ( Future of GSM)
HSCSD (High Speed ckt Switched data)
Data rate : 76.8 Kbps (9.6 x 8 kbps)
GPRS (General Packet Radio service)
Data rate: 14.4 - 115.2 Kbps
EDGE (Enhanced data rate for GSM Evolution)
Data rate: 547.2 Kbps (max)
WCDMA(Wide band CDMA)
Data rate : 0.348 – 2.0 Mbps Thank You : Thank You