African_American_History

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Lesson 1

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Welcome to Dr. Roscoe's class within AAMI Bible Institute High School :

Welcome to Dr. Roscoe's class within AAMI Bible Institute High School I'm excited about our time that we'll share in this journey to acquire your High School Education.    If at any time you feel overwhelmed, please contact me @ aami.bible.institute@aamig.org This course is a study of the slave movement that began around 1600. This movement continued throughout that era and strong opinions of its’ concept are still in many discussions today. Copyright © Another Alternative Ministries Global 2011 - 2015

African American History :

Copyright (c) AAMI Bible Institute and High School 2011 - 2013 2 African American History Lesson 1 Grace Roscoe, Ph.D., Instructor

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Copyright (c) AAMI Bible Institute and High School 2011 - 2013 3 Around 1600, Africans began to be shipped to North America as slaves. Slaves did most of the work where they lived. Most of them worked in mines or on plantations, while some became servants. Some people thought that slavery was wrong, while the majority of people thought that slavery was acceptable. Slaves did most of the work where they lived. Most of them worked in mines or on plantations, while some became servants. Some people thought that slavery was wrong, while the majority of people thought that slavery was acceptable.

Slavery Grows in the South:

Copyright (c) AAMI Bible Institute and High School 2011 - 2013 4 Slavery Grows in the South Plantation slaves in the 1800's were called field hands. Their jobs were to plant and pick cotton. Out of all the different kinds of slaves, field hands worked the longest. From sunrise to sunset they worked. In their master's home, house slaves worked as servants and did jobs like doing the laundry or making dinner. Some other slaves who worked on plantations became trained craft workers like bricklayers, blacksmiths, carpenters, or cabinetmakers. Besides working on plantations, some slaves worked in factories while others became construction workers on canals and railroads. Others became dockworkers, office workers, riverboat pilots, and lumberjacks. Some even worked hard in mines. Whites didn't want black slaves to read and write because they might be encouraged to run away.

Slavery Grows in the South:

Copyright (c) AAMI Bible Institute and High School 2011 - 2013 5 Slavery Grows in the South There were different kinds of slaveholders. It has been reported that some treated their slaves well by giving them gifts and money for doing a good job. Yet it is a know fact that others treated their slaves poorly by punishing or threatening them. When slaves worked in large groups such as in mines or on farms, they were often over-worked and punished. Some who worked as servants were treated as a member of the owner's family. In some cases slaves were released from their owners when the owner died leaving a will saying they were free because of their good work and loyalty.

Slavery Grows in the South:

Copyright (c) AAMI Bible Institute and High School 2011 - 2013 6 Slavery Grows in the South Slaves created their own language and music. Religion helped slaves get through rough times. Their religion was a combination of African and Christian beliefs. Some slaves tried to escape to freedom through the Underground Railroad . We’ll discuss this a little later in this lesson.

Slavery & Its Troubles :

Copyright (c) AAMI Bible Institute and High School 2011 - 2013 7 Slavery & Its Troubles The institution of slavery was the one momentous question that plagued the nation prior to the Civil War; have slavery only where it already existed, allow it to spread to newly acquired lands, or abolish the institution altogether? These were the troubling questions on the minds of many throughout the country. When the United States won its independence slavery had already existed in America for over a century. The people of the country were mostly the same; most spoke the same language, worshiped the same Protestant God, tilled the same soil, shared a common national and state pride and pride in the establishment of the Republican form of government.

Slavery & Its Troubles :

Copyright (c) AAMI Bible Institute and High School 2011 - 2013 8 Slavery & Its Troubles From the formation of the government though, slavery was one issue which divided the country. John Jay Chapman, an essayist, wrote of the problem; "There was never a moment when the slavery issue was not a sleeping serpent. That issue lay coiled up under the table during the deliberations of the Constitutional Convention of 1787. It was, owing to the cotton gin, more than half wake at the time of the Louisiana Purchase in 1803...Thereafter, slavery was on everyone's mind, though not always on his tongue."

Slavery & Its Troubles :

Copyright (c) AAMI Bible Institute and High School 2011 - 2013 9 Slavery & Its Troubles The institution of slavery was the one momentous question that plagued the nation prior to the Civil War; have slavery only where it already existed, allow it to spread to newly acquired lands, or abolish the institution altogether? These were the troubling questions on the minds of many throughout the country. When the United States won its independence slavery had already existed in America for over a century. The people of the country were mostly the same; most spoke the same language, worshiped the same Protestant God, tilled the same soil, shared a common national and state pride and pride in the establishment of the Republican form of government. From the formation of the government though, slavery was one issue which divided the country.

Slavery & Its Troubles :

Copyright (c) AAMI Bible Institute and High School 2011 - 2013 10 Slavery & Its Troubles John Jay Chapman, an essayist, wrote of the problem; "There was never a moment when the slavery issue was not a sleeping serpent. That issue lay coiled up under the table during the deliberations of the Constitutional Convention of 1787. It was, owing to the cotton gin, more than half wake at the time of the Louisiana Purchase in 1803...Thereafter, slavery was on everyone's mind, though not always on his tongue." By 1861 the cultures of North and South differed sharply, thus brining them into conflict. The North's and South's way of life differed in the use slave labor. Much of the northern states placed a high moral value on work in the hopes of creating a good society—not a strong suit for slaveholding. Many northern states never had any slaves at all and none ever had significant numbers compared to the South. Many of the states were not well suited for staple crop agriculture that becomes dependent on slave labor. However, the opposite was true of the South.

Slavery & Its Troubles :

Copyright (c) AAMI Bible Institute and High School 2011 - 2013 11 Slavery & Its Troubles An increased hostility towards the South was a result of increasing moral objections to slavery. Above the Mason-Dixon, a boundary separating Maryland and Pennsylvania, slavery was quickly becoming abolished, while south of the line slavery was a huge economic investment. Sectional differences began to arise—slavery was condemned by Northern abolitionists and consequently, Southerners started to believe that these abolitionists’ views were shared by all Northerners.

Slavery & Its Troubles :

Copyright (c) AAMI Bible Institute and High School 2011 - 2013 12 Slavery & Its Troubles Since the establishment of the American republic the issue of slavery troubled the country. The U.S. constitution allowed each state to decide whether it is free or slave. Compromises on the issue began with the Constitution's Three-Fifths Compromise and evolved into keeping a delicate balance of free and slave states. Each addition to land territory threatened this delicate balance. This caused problems and agitated the sectional crisis. The Southern states where slavery already existed could not be altered by Northerners, yet Northerners hoped to prevent the spread of slavery into newly acquired areas which were under federal control. As a result, the status of slavery in the territories sparked a political struggle that would eventually erupt into irreconcilable differences and would lead to war. Works Cited Axelrod, Alan. America’s Wars. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2002. Ward, Geoffrey, Ric Burns, and Ken Burns. The Civil War. New York: Alfred A Knopp, Inc., 1990. Woodworth, Steven E. Cultures in Conflict: The American Civil War. Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 2000.

Slavery & Its Troubles :

Copyright (c) AAMI Bible Institute and High School 2011 - 2013 13 Slavery & Its Troubles The climate and agricultural customs allowed a more natural place for slavery to take hold. The use of slaves was exclusively a southern institution by the beginning of the 19th century. Slaves provided the backbone of labor for the agricultural economy for the South. Aside from cultural difference the South and North differed in their own visions; the North for creating a good society while the South at getting rich. More slaves meant more profit. Economics played a huge role in dividing the nation as did politics, sectional power and culture. One Southern woman declared, "We are separated because of incompatibility of temper. We are divorced...because we hated each other so..."

The Underground Railroad:

Copyright (c) AAMI Bible Institute and High School 2011 - 2013 14 The Underground Railroad The Underground Railroad wasn't a real railroad and it wasn't necessarily underground. It really was a system that helped slaves escape to freedom in areas such as the northern states and Canada in the 1800's. This system was called the Underground Railroad because of the secret way slaves escaped. It was in 14 northern states but was mainly in Indiana, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and the New England states. The slaves would hide during the day and moved almost always at night. To make sure no one found out about it, the people who aided the slaves and the fugitives would use many railroad words as code words.

The Underground Railroad:

Copyright (c) AAMI Bible Institute and High School 2011 - 2013 15 The Underground Railroad Although some slaves settled in the North, others didn't because they could be captured and would be returned to being a slave. Instead these slaves would go to Canada. The line between freedom and slavery was called the Mason Dixon Line . It is located on the border of Pennsylvania and Maryland .

Three Hundred Dollars Reward to Catch an escaped Slave:

Copyright (c) AAMI Bible Institute and High School 2011 - 2013 16 Three Hundred Dollars Reward to Catch an escaped Slave

Three Hundred Dollars Reward to Catch an escaped Slave:

Copyright (c) AAMI Bible Institute and High School 2011 - 2013 17 Three Hundred Dollars Reward to Catch an escaped Slave

Thee Rebellious Slaves:

Copyright (c) AAMI Bible Institute and High School 2011 - 2013 18 Thee Rebellious Slaves

The Underground Railroad:

Copyright (c) AAMI Bible Institute and High School 2011 - 2013 19 The Underground Railroad The Underground Railroad helped millions of slaves escape to freedom. People who worked for the Underground Railroad felt that they had to set slaves free because it was wrong to make people work for no pay. Many also thought that people should all be treated equally, even if they had different colored skin. They helped slaves escape to freedom in the north by hiding them and moving them in wagons, on horse, and on foot. Abolitionists also helped slaves escape by giving them shelter and food along the way. We’ll discuss their movement a little later in this lesson.

The Underground Railroad:

Copyright (c) AAMI Bible Institute and High School 2011 - 2013 20 The Underground Railroad Routes To Freedom The route you traveled—based on Harriet Tubman’s actual journeys—appears in map insert (at right). Using modern roads, the trip would be 560 miles (900 kilometers) long. A strong, lucky runaway might have made it to freedom in two months. For others, especially in bad weather, the trek might have lasted a year.

The Underground Railroad:

Copyright (c) AAMI Bible Institute and High School 2011 - 2013 21 The Underground Railroad Quakers and ex-slaves were some of the people who helped out along the way. Along with Harriet Tubman, many other ex-slaves were conductors on the Underground Railroad. They knew what it was like to be a slave and wanted to keep others safe as they ran away. Quakers were white people who didn't think that there should be slavery. They often used their houses as stations along the Underground Railroad.

The Underground Railroad:

Copyright (c) AAMI Bible Institute and High School 2011 - 2013 22 The Underground Railroad The Underground Railroad helped hundreds of thousands of slaves to escape to freedom in the north. All the people who were involved in the Underground Railroad made something fantastic happen. They hid people in their houses and helped people get to the free states. T The Underground Railroad was a golden path to freedom.

Secret Codes:

Copyright (c) AAMI Bible Institute and High School 2011 - 2013 23 Secret Codes The Underground Railroad had a lot of code names so no one knew what they were saying. They didn’t want people to know what they were saying because someone might turn them in for stealing property. The slaves were property of the slave owners and they were stealing them. One code word was "lines." The lines were the routes outlining where the people could go to escape to freedom. The slaves were the passengers or cargo and were called "freight" or "packages." The places where the "packages" were delivered were called "stations." They were called stations because the stops on a real train are also called stations. Finally, the people helping to guide the slaves along the railroad were called "conductors." Harriet Tubman was the most famous conductor on the Underground Railroad.

Secret Codes in the Quilt:

Copyright (c) AAMI Bible Institute and High School 2011 - 2013 24 Secret Codes in the Quilt

Secret Codes in the Quilt:

Copyright (c) AAMI Bible Institute and High School 2011 - 2013 25 Secret Codes in the Quilt In order to memorize the whole code, a sampler quilt was used.  The sampler quilt would include all of the patterns arranged in the order of the code.  Traditionally, the sampler quilt was used to teach pattern piecing.   Think of it as a book of fabric patterns.  If the mistress or anyone saw a person conducting a class on patterns, praise for industrious behavior would be the outcome.  No one would suspect what was really taking place. The monkey wrench turns the wagon wheel toward Canada on a bears paw trail to the crossroads. Once they got to the crossroads they dug a log cabin on the ground.  Shoofly told them to dress up in cotton and satin bow ties and go to the cathedral church, get married and exchange double wedding rings . Flying geese stay on the drunkard's path and follow the stars .

Working on the Railroad:

Copyright (c) AAMI Bible Institute and High School 2011 - 2013 26 Working on the Railroad Working on the Railroad After the compromise, the city of Rochester, New York was very important in getting slaves through the northern United States and into Canada. This was clearly stated in the book A Path to Freedom in 1866. Rochester was honored for its participation in and support of the Underground Railroad. This sparked new hope in the conductors. Now slaves could get through to Canada without being caught. Harriett Tubman

Abolitionist Movement:

Copyright (c) AAMI Bible Institute and High School 2011 - 2013 27 Abolitionist Movement Abolitionist - someone who wants to end something. As early as 1786 people had started to protest against slavery. One such group was the Pennsylvania Abolition Society. Some of its members included George Washington, Ben Franklin, Thomas Paine, and John Brown . Brown was hanged for seizing the weapons arsenal at Harper’s Ferry, Virginia, in the hope of starting a slave uprising. He fought the Army and hoped slaves would join him to fight for their freedom. While many abolitionists fought to end slavery in the U.S., many also worked on the Underground Railroad to rescue a few slaves at a time and help them win their freedom Abolitionists started a movement in the 1800's to try to end slavery. Then, southerners began to stick up for slavery in what became known as the Proslavery Movement . Some southerners involved in the movement quarreled that slavery was like " the law of nature " which allowed the strong to rule the weak . They believed it was right for Whites to own Blacks as slaves because the strong were ruling the weak. Other people believed that the Bible favored slavery, while others thought that southern slavery was better than living in Africa, because in the South they would have a lifelong home with better living conditions. By 1860, almost all southerners thought slavery should continue.

John Brown:

Copyright (c) AAMI Bible Institute and High School 2011 - 2013 28 John Brown Throughout my whole life I was opposed to slavery. I helped slaves from many states escape north to Canada. Learning to Hate Slavery Hi, I am John Brown and I would like you to compare my life to yours. I was born in 1820 in the town of Torrington, Connecticut. Then my family moved to Ohio, where I lived as a child. When I was 12 and working in my dad’s friend’s barn I discovered a slave boy about my age. He told me his name was Cyrus. He was frail and poorly clothed. I saw his owner hit him with an iron shovel! After that I hated slavery and had nightmares about it. I soon grew up and married twice with a result of twenty children. When I was married, I worked at many businesses. Through out my whole life, even though I was white I was opposed to slavery. I didn’t like slavery because the wanted signs (offering rewards for slaves to be returned to their owners) polluted our air, and there were people searching our houses for slaves.

John Brown:

Copyright (c) AAMI Bible Institute and High School 2011 - 2013 29 John Brown I helped slaves from many states escape north to Canada. I began helping the slaves after I moved to Massachusetts in 1846. In 1849, I moved to New York. I helped slaves in New York for six years. I was really starting to hate slavery. In 1851, I participated in and helped the Underground Railroad protect and hide slaves from slave catchers. That just made me hate slavery even more because I saw how many catchers were looking for slaves and what they would do to catch them. It just sickened me.

Fugitive Slave Bill Angers Free States :

Copyright (c) AAMI Bible Institute and High School 2011 - 2013 30 Fugitive Slave Bill Angers Free States The Fugitive Slave Bill of 1850 (part of the Compromise of 1850) was very important in the life of the Underground Railroad. It made it illegal to keep freed slaves in the northern United States. This hurt the Underground Railroad because now they had to get the slaves all the way to Canada instead of just making it to Pennsylvania or Michigan. This also made it much harder on the conductors because they had to hide the slaves for a much longer time. This was much better for the south because the north now had to return any newfound slaves back to their rightful owners. A lot of people in the north disagreed with this and printed posters of warning - "CAUTION COLORED PEOPLE OF BOSTON!" The posters warned the freed slaves to stay off the streets and hide indoors.

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Copyright (c) AAMI Bible Institute and High School 2011 - 2013 31 The slave states had approximately four million slaves by 1860 and made up one-third of the South's population. In the 1700's, religious leaders and philosophers in North America and Europe began saying that slavery was wrong. They felt that slavery went against human rights and God's teachings. A few slave owners thought Africans were less than human and that it was all right to treat them badly. During the Revolutionary War in America (1775-1783) many Americans began to feel that slavery was wrong. The Americans who were against slavery came to believe that slavery in the United States wasn't right because the United States had been formed to protect human rights, and slaves didn't have rights. Slavery was opposed more rapidly in the North, because few people in the North owned slaves. George Washington and Thomas Jefferson even spoke out against slavery. The Antislavery and Proslavery Movements

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Copyright (c) AAMI Bible Institute and High School 2011 - 2013 32 The masters of slaves made high profits from owning slaves and this had a greater influence on them than the people who argued against slavery. Throughout the South, most southern people remained supportive of slavery. Approximately one-fourth of the region's Whites owned slaves or were in a family that had slaves working for them. Owning over half of the slaves, about 45,000 planters controlled the government and economy of the southern states. Even southerners who didn't own slaves felt the South's economy would fail if people could not own slaves. The Antislavery and Proslavery Movements

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Copyright (c) AAMI Bible Institute and High School 2011 - 2013 33 The Fight over Slavery in the West During the 1800's slavery began to increase in the West. The North worried that the states that allowed slavery would take over Congress if these new territories joined the Union as slave states. If the West joined the Union as "free soil" states, slave states would be outnumbered in Congress by free states, so Southerners began demanding that slavery should continue in the western states.  Arguments over slavery in the new states helped bring on the Civil War which was fought from 1861 to 1865.  Slavery was abolished in the United States in 1865.

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Copyright (c) AAMI Bible Institute and High School 2011 - 2013 34 John O. Slim’s Interview with Harriet Tubman Hi, I am John O. Slim and I am here today to interview the famous Harriet Tubman about her daring and dangerous life that made many of us realize how bad slavery really is. Bang. What was that? It was my gun. I carry a gun to threaten anybody who thinks about going back to the plantation because they think that their Masters may catch them. I liked to do the running during the night to keep from being caught. Also, I couldn’t bear seeing them working in the fields like I used to. I really wanted to help them be free like me. Fortunately I have never had to use my gun. Really? Yes, I have never had to use it before on anyone. Sometimes I do have to shoot it up in the air to get my fellow slaves’ attention or I will shoot it up if I hear somebody talking about turning back. I try to control that because it is too much of a risk. If I keep shooting it off we may get caught by our masters or people who are looking for a reward before we can run away to the north.

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Copyright (c) AAMI Bible Institute and High School 2011 - 2013 35 John O. Slim’s Interview with Harriet Tubman I see. Well, now that that is over, let’s talk about your child life, Harriet. What was that like? Well, John, since I was a slave, my childhood was very sad and lonely as well as a lot of work. It was also sad and lonely because I was always away from my family. My family worked in the fields while I worked in the house. Is that really true? Yes, that is true. I didn’t see my family until I was in the early teens when I was hired out in the fields! That is very common for girls because our masters don’t think we are strong enough to work in fields until then. Most boys are hired out when they are about the age of ten. Image of Harriet Tubman at http://members.aol.com/klove/blackhist.htm from Ken Love, klove01@aol.com, March 2001. Email message

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Copyright (c) AAMI Bible Institute and High School 2011 - 2013 36 John O. Slim’s Interview with Harriet Tubman I also heard you always had a great fear that you never told anyone about because you thought they would laugh at you. Well, this may seem funny to you, but I was always afraid of my master dying, because I might have been sent further south-a virtual death to any Negro such as myself. Ha-ha-ha. You are right, that is pretty funny, but why did that mean death to you? I told you that people would laugh at me if I told them my worst fear was my master dying. It meant death to me because if I was shipped farther south, I would have been treated very badly. They would make me work harder, too. Also, I would be split up from my family again. Well, anyway, did your "hem" fear ever come true? Yes, it did. It happened in 1849 when my master died. Luckily they were not going to start sending slaves to the south until the next morning, so that gave me all night to plan and make my escape to the north!

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Copyright (c) AAMI Bible Institute and High School 2011 - 2013 37 John O. Slim’s Interview with Harriet Tubman It must have been a successful escape too, otherwise you wouldn’t be here with us. That is true, John, it was successful, and I want to thank the Underground Railroad for all of their help. The Underground Railroad is a group that helps slaves like me escape to the north. They provided me with food and shelter. Oh, Harriet, I was wondering if you have seen the newspaper, because I happen to have one. It reads : Extra! Extra! W A N T E D - Harriet TubmanReward $ 70,000 Wow, they were offering that much for my catch? Yes, they were. Why do you think they would pay that much for your capture? I think they were paying that much for me because nobody wanted to lose their slaves. I made exactly nineteen trips back to help more of my fellow slaves escape to the north to Canada. The Underground Railroad helped the slaves and me a lot on our journey by feeding us, giving us shelter and clothing, and hiding us when slave catchers where nearby. I saved over three hundred slaves by helping them escape north. Out of the nineteen trips, my fourth was the most enjoyable because I finally helped my parents run away north! Because I caused so many masters to lose their slaves, the reward offered for my capture was always very large.

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Copyright (c) AAMI Bible Institute and High School 2011 - 2013 38 John O. Slim’s Interview with Harriet Tubman Tell me Harriet, do you think your life affected others? Yes, John, I do think that my life affected other white men or women as yourself, because I think that they saw me helping my fellow slaves escape north from their horrible masters. I think that they will realize how cruel slavery is and they might even join the Underground Railroad and help slaves escape north to Canada. I also think that I am affecting other Negroes such as myself by showing that they can escape and be free from slavery! Well, that’s all. I hope you live many more years, Harriet! Goodbye. One year later the headline read: Extra!  Extra!  Harriet Tubman dies!! Last night the famous Harriet Tubman died of pneumonia. The precise date of her death was March 10, 1913. We will still remember Harriet Tubman for her help during the time of slavery and the time of the Civil War. She helped our nation realize how cruel slavery can be by helping other slaves escape to freedom. Harriet also showed that a little help could go a long way.

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Copyright (c) AAMI Bible Institute and High School 2011 - 2013 39 Harriet Tubman Timeline   Year Event 1810  Harriet Tubman is born. Hired out to fields        Master died 1849 Escaped to freedom and began helping others escape on the Underground Railroad 1913 Harriet died

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Copyright (c) AAMI Bible Institute and High School 2011 - 2013 40 Readings 1 – 2 Reading 1: The whole commerce between master and slave is a perpetual exercise of the...most unremitting despotism on the one part, and degrading submissions on the other.....Indeed I tremble for my country when I reflect that God is just; that his justice cannot sleep forever. Thomas Jefferson, 1782 Reading 2: An hour before day light the horn is blown. Then the slaves arouse, prepare their breakfast, fill a gourd with water, in another deposit their dinner of cold bacon and corn cake, and hurry to the field again. It is an offense invariably followed by a flogging, to be found at the quarters after daybreak.... The hands are required to be in the cotton field as soon as it is light in the morning, and, with the exception of ten or fifteen minutes, which is given them at noon to swallow their allowance of cold bacon, they are not permitted to be a moment idle until it is too dark to see, and when the moon is full, they often times labor till the middle of the night. They do not dare to stop even at dinner time, nor return to the quarters, however late it be, until the order to halt is given by the driver.... Finally, at a late hour, they reach the quarters, sleepy and overcome with the long day's toil. All that is allowed them is corn and bacon, which is given out at the corn-crib and smoke-house every Sunday morning. Each one receives, as his weekly allowance, three and a half pounds of bacon, and corn enough to make a peck of meal. That is all. Solomon Northrup  

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Copyright (c) AAMI Bible Institute and High School 2011 - 2013 41 Readings 3 The laborers begin work at six o'clock in the morning, have an hour's rest at nine for breakfast, and many have finished their assigned task by two o'clock, all of them by three o'clock. In summer, they divide their work differently, going to bed in the middle of the day, then rising to finish their task, and afterward spending a great part of the night in chatting, merry-making, preaching, and psalm-singing.... The laborers are allowed Indian meal, rice, and milk, and occasionally pork and soup. As their rations are more than they can eat, they either return part of it at the end of the week, or they keep it to feed their fowls, which they usually sell, as well as their eggs, for cash, to buy molasses, tobacco, and other luxuries.... The sight of the whip was painful to me as a mark of degradation, reminding me that the lower orders of slaves are kept to their work by mere bodily fear, and that their treatment must depend on the individual character of the owner or overseer. Sir Charles Lyell

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Copyright (c) AAMI Bible Institute and High School 2011 - 2013 42 Readings 4 The Negro slaves of the South are the happiest, and, in some sense, the freest people in the world. The children and the aged and infirm work not at all, and yet have all the comforts and necessaries of life provided for them. They enjoy liberty, because they are oppressed neither by care nor labor. The women do little hard work, and are protected from the despotism of their husbands by their masters. The Negro men and stout boys work, on the average, in good weather, not more than nine hours a day....Besides they have their Sabbaths and holidays. The free laborer must work or starve. He is more of a slave than the Negro, because he works longer and harder for less allowance than the slave, and has no holiday, because the cares of life with him begin when its labor end. He has no liberty, and not a single right. George Fitzhugh, Cannibals All or Slaves Without Masters , 1857

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Copyright (c) AAMI Bible Institute and High School 2011 - 2013 43 Readings 5 On the 12th of May, 1828, I heard a loud noise in the heavens, and the Spirit instantly appeared to me and said the Serpent was loosened, and Christ had laid down the yoke he had borne for the sins of Men, and that I should take it on and fight against the Serpent, for the time was fast approaching when the first should be last and the last should be first. Question: Do you not find yourself mistaken now? Answer: Was not Christ crucified? Since 1830, I had been living with Mr. Joseph Travis, who was a kind master who had placed great trust in me. On Saturday evening, August 20th [1831] we decided to meet the next day for a meal and to work out our plan of attack....It was quickly agreed we should start at home (Mr. J. Travis') on that night. I took my station in the rear, and, as it was my object to carry terror and destruction wherever we went, I placed fifteen or twenty of the best armed and most to be relied on in front, who generally approached the houses as fast as their horses could run. This was for two purposes--to prevent their escape and strike terror to the inhabitants. Confessions of Nat Turner , 1831

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Copyright (c) AAMI Bible Institute and High School 2011 - 2013 44 Readings 6 Follow the Drinking Gourd When the sun comes back and the first quail calls, Follow the drinking gourd. for the old man is a-waiting for to carry you to freedom, If you follow the drinking gourd The river bank will make a very good road, The dead trees show you the way. Left foot, peg foot traveling on, Follow the drinking gourd. Negro spiritual.

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Copyright (c) AAMI Bible Institute and High School 2011 - 2013 45 Conclusion This concludes your Lesson 1 on African American History. Please answer the questions in your assignment section and post in your class. Thank you, Dr. Roscoe

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