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CHAPTER 1 i . Introduction: comparison and context Ii. The promise iii. pOlictics , you, and democracy iv. Person AND SOCIETY V. WHAT IS POLITICS? UNDERSTANDING CULTURE, SOCIETY, AND POLITICS

INTRODUCTION: COMPARISON AND CONTEXT :

INTRODUCTION: COMPARISON AND CONTEXT UNDERSTANDING CULTURE, SOCIETY, AND POLITICS

What is anthropology?:

What is anthropology? It is a compound of two greek words, ‘ antropos ’ and ‘logos’, which can be translated as ‘human’ and ‘reason’, respectively.

anthropology:

anthropology ANTHROPOLOGY THAT DEALS WITH HUMAN CULTURE ESPECIALLY WITH RESPECT TO SOCIAL STRUCTURE LANGUAGE , LAW, POLITICS,RELIGION, MAGIC, ART, AND TECHNOLOGY.

anthropology:

anthropology Anthropology tries to account for the social and cultural variation in the world, but a crucial part of the anthropological project also consist in conceptualizing and understanding similarities between social system and human relationships. As one of the foremost anthropologists of the 20 th century, Claude Levi-strauss , has expressed it: ‘anthropology has humanity as its object of research, but unlike the other human sciences, it tries to grasp its object through its most diverse and manifestations’.

what is the importance of anthropology?:

what is the importance of anthropology? Understanding  the origin and history of human beings is important to also understand global cultures and communities. Anthropology looks at shared aspects of humanity like language, cultural connections, economics and curiosity to find the common thread.

Why is culture important to anthropology?:

Why is culture important to anthropology? Anthropology  is the scientific study of human beings as social organisms interacting with each other in their environment, and  cultural  aspects of life. ... To make substantial and accurate comparisons between  cultures , a generalization of humans requires evidence from the wide range of human societies.

SOCIAL and cultural ANTHROPOLOGY:

SOCIAL and cultural ANTHROPOLOGY Social anthropology is the study of all peoples everywhere – what they make, what they do, what they think and how they organise their social relationships and societies. By living with people in different cultures and learning to talk and behave like them (‘fieldwork’) , social anthropologists produce in-depth descriptions of their customs and ways of life (‘ethnographies’) . They also compare different cultures and societies to explore their similarities and differences, to test the generalisations of historians, social scientists and philosophers, and to produce theories of how best to study and understand human nature .

The universal and the particular:

The universal and the particular Anthropologist George Murdock (1945) distinguished between cultural universals and particulars. Cultural universals   are those things that all cultures have in common. Every culture has natural resources such as trees, plants, and rocks that people put to some use. In addition, every culture has developed responses to the challenges of being human and living with others. Those challenges include the need to interact with others, to be mentally stimulated, to satisfy hunger, and to face mortality. In every culture, people have established specific ways of meeting these universal challenges. Source: anthropology guide

The problem of ethnocentrism:

The problem of ethnocentrism Ethnocentrism- from Greek “ethnos” meaning a people . It means evaluating other people from one’s own vantage-point and describing them in one’s own term. One’s own ‘ethnos’, including one’s cultural values, is literally placed at the centre . Within this frame of thought, other peoples would necessarily appear as inferior imitations of one self.

Cultural Relativism:

Cultural Relativism Cultural relativism is sometimes posited as the opposite of ethnocentrism. This is the doctrine that societies or cultures are qualitatively different and have their own unique inner logic, and that it is therefore scientifically absurd to rank them on scale.

Edward Tylor One of the earliest articulations of the anthropological meaning of the term "culture" came from Sir Edward Tylor who writes on the first page of his 1871 book: "Culture, Or Civilization, Taken in its Broad, Ethnographic Sense, is that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society. :

Edward Tylor One of the earliest articulations of the anthropological meaning of the term " culture " came from Sir  E dward Tylor  who writes on the first page of his 1871 book: "Culture, Or Civilization, Taken in its Broad, Ethnographic Sense, is that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society.

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vere gordon childe - Better known as  ’ V. Gordon childe’ , was an australian   Archaeologist  and  Philologist  who specialized in the study of  European Prehistory . He spent most of his life in the united kingdom, working as an academic for the  University of Edinburgh  and then the  Institute of Archaeology London , and wrote twenty-six books during his career. Initially an early proponent of  Culture-historical Archaeology , he later became the first exponent of  Marxist Archaeology  in the western world.

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timothy “TIM ” ingold He was educated at  Leighton Park School  in reading, UK and his father was the world-renowned  Mycologist   Cecil Terence Ingold .He attended  Churchill College, Cambridge , initially studying natural sciences but shifting to anthropology (BA in social anthropology 1970, phd 1976).His doctoral work was conducted with the  Skolt Saami  of northeastern finland , studying their ecological adaptations, social organisation and ethnic politics. Ingold taught at the  University Of Helsinki  (1973–74) and then the  University of Manchester , becoming professor in 1990 and  Max Gluckman Professor  in 1995.

LET’S PLAY A GAME!:

LET’S PLAY A GAME!

Sibiligabirus ucsp:

Sibiligabirus ucsp

the promise:

the promise UNDERSTANDING CULTURE, SOCIETY, AND POLITICS

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C. Wright mills was a sociologist who believed that knowledge was the crucial element to  social change . He was a hugely influential, radical social theorist. One example of his works, which supports this distinction, is his legendary book on social power. In 1964, the society for the study of social problems established the C. Wright mills award. This award is given to the individual whose work 'best exemplifies outstanding social science research and a great understanding of the individual and society in the tradition of the distinguished sociologist, C. Wright mills.' He felt society needed to change - and that change would come through those who had knowledge and used it properly. He felt that  critical thinking  was the means of obtaining this crucial knowledge and, thus, used this thinking to create what he called the sociological imagination. Charles Wright Mills Born :   28 August 1916,   Waco, Texas, United States Died:   20 March 1962,   West Nyack, New York, United States Known for :   Elite theory; Coining the term "grand theory"

What is sociological imagination ?:

What is sociological imagination ? The sociological imagination is the practice of being able to “think ourselves away” from the familiar routines of our daily lives in order to look at them with fresh, critical eyes. C. Wright Mills , who created the concept and wrote a book about it, defined the sociological as “the vivid awareness of the relationship between experience and the wider society.”

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The sociological imagination is a 1959 book by american sociologist c.Wright mills published by oxford university press. In it, he develops the idea of sociological imagination, the means by which the relation between self and society can be understood.

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The sociological imagination is the ability to see things socially and how they interact and influence each other.

Why is it important to have a sociological imagination?:

Why is it important to have a sociological imagination? Having sociological imagination is critical for individual people and societies at large to understand. It is  important  that people are able to relate the situations in which they live their daily lives to the local, national, and global societal issues that affect them.

TROUBLES:

TROUBLES Occur within the character of the individual and within the range of his immediate relation with others; they have to do with his self and with those limited areas of social life of which he is directly and personally aware .

issues:

issues Have to de with matters that transcend these local environments of the individual and the range of his inner life. They have to do with the organization of many such milieux into the institutions of historical society as a whole, with the ways in which various milieux overlap and interpenetrate to form the larger structure of social and historical life.

politics, you, democracy :

politics, you, democracy UNDERSTANDING CULTURE, SOCIETY, AND POLITICS

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ARISTOTLE PLATO

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G R E E C E

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The journalist had lunch with no less than the president of the Philippines in malaca Ñ ang and yet he calls the lunch “nonpolitical.” why does he describe the lunch nonpolitical? w hen is a lunch in malaca Ñ ang with the Philippine president and his special assistant a political one and when is it not?

What is politics?:

What is politics? THE ACTIVITIES OF GOVERNMENT CONCERNING THE POLITICAL RELATIONS BETWEEN COUNTRIES.

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Harold Lasswell Born:   13 February 1902,  Illinois, United States Died:  18 December 1978,  New York, United States Education:   University of Chicago Politics may be defined in different gradients of inclusiveness. Some scholar are too inclusive that they define almost everything as political, while others exclude a number of items, but they differ in what they exclude and include. There are scholars who consider any activity that involves power-who gets what, when, and how as political.

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Michael Oakeshott Born :  11 December 1901 ,  Chelsfield , UK. Died:  19 December 1990 , Acton, United Kingdom POLITICS IS RESERVED TO THE STATEMEN AND STATESWOMEN .

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Bernard Crick Born:  16 December 1929,   London, uk Died :  19 December 2008,  Edinburgh, Uk POLITICS IS A WAY OF RULING IN DIVIDED SOCIETIES WITHOUT VIOLENCE.

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Politics is a relational, purposive activity that may occur in any arena- between two persons, a family, an office, the government, or the state-but among these, the study of politics on the level of the state is the most important not only because common people like a journalist above tell us that the state is the ‘pinnacle of political power’, but also because great philosophers have said so.

STATE:

STATE it molds us and gives us character. highest of all social organization. a life that is truly human is possible only in the state. in other words, studying politics, studying the affairs of the state, is studying about us.

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By focusing on the state , we indeed define politics as an activity that involves the use of threat of use of power . the political question , therefore, is how power and the threat of using it are shared.

SCOPE OF POLITICS:

SCOPE OF POLITICS DOMESTIC VIOLENCE.

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