Environmental Biotechnology

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Environmental Biotechnology : 

Environmental Biotechnology Application of the principles of microbiology to the solution of environmental problems.  need to be familiar with microbiology Microbiology mikros (微小) bios (生命) logos (科學) 研究微小生命/微小生物之科學

微生物 (Microorganism) : 

微生物 (Microorganism) 顯微鏡發明 (17世紀) Before: 動物、植物 After :動物、植物、微生物 普便存於自然界 (水,空氣,土壤,生物體內外) 扮演生產者或分解者角色

Microorganism : 

Microorganism usually less than 1 mm in diameter; can’t be seen clearly by naked eye single cells or cell clusters are ubiquitous in the environment large diversity (species diversity, ecological diversity, genetic diversity)

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The Microbial World: - the world of protists (原生生物) - include: fungi真菌, algae藻類, protozoa原生動物, bacteria細菌 and virus病毒. - comprised of 2 cellular types: Eukaryotic cells (真核細胞, the Eukarya): fungi, algae, and protozoa are eukaryotic cells. Cells may be bigger than 1 mm and usually be long (hundreds of m’s). Prokaryotic cells (原核細胞): bacteria (the Bacteria or Eubacteria) and archaeobacteria (原始細菌, the Archaea)

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Internal structure of microbial cells. (a) Diagram of a prokaryote. (b) Diagram of a eukaryote Organelle 胞器

Bacteria 細菌 : 

Bacteria 細菌 細菌

Bacterial Cell Morphologies : 

Bacterial Cell Morphologies Size: micrometer range (m, 1/1000 mm). - most prokaryotes are 0.5 to 2.0 by 1.0 to 5.0 m. some may be over 100 m in length. Super bacteria (Epulopiscium fishelsoni), 50 m x 600 m long -eukaryotes generally 2-200 m x 100-150 m long

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Prokaryotic cell shape More images of microbes at Microbe Zoo.

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Green algae A purple sulfur bacteria

Bioluminescent bacteria and their role as light organs in the flashlight fish : 

Bioluminescent bacteria and their role as light organs in the flashlight fish

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Spores in Heliobacterium gestii

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Filamentous green nonsulfur bacteria

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Cells of Thermocrinus ruber growing as filamentous streamers (arrow) attached to siliceous sinter in the outflow (85°C) of Octopus Spring, Yellowstone National Park. The pink color is due to a carotenoid pigment

Diversity of Bacteria : 

Diversity of Bacteria Environmental conditions for growth Temperature: psychrophile, mesophile, thermophile, hyperthermophile pH: acidophile, neutrophile, alkalophile O2 requirement: aerobic, anaerobic, facultative bacteria Tolerance of salt: halophile, extreme halophile

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The Archaea

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Great Salt Lake, Utah, USA.

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Seawater evaporating ponds near San Francisco Bay, California where solar salt is prepared. The red-purple color is predominantly due to cells of Halobacterium.

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Pigmented haloalkaliphiles grown in Lake Hamara, a pH 10 soda lake at Wadi El Natroun, Egypt.

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Oxidation of Fe2+ to Fe3+ due to the growth of Sulfolobus

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The Eukarya

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Ancient eucaryotic protists found in fossilized rocks

Fungi (真菌) : 

Fungi (真菌) 酵母菌 黴菌 蕈類

Fungi : 

Fungi Together with bacteria, are the primary decomposer Oxidation of dead organic material, returns inorganic elements back into the environment (Nutrient cycle) All are organotrophic, no phototrophic Most favor terrestrial habitats, some aquatic habitats

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Yeast cells Single-cell fungi

Characteristics of Fungi : 

Characteristics of Fungi Most fungi grow as tubular filaments called hyphae菌絲 . An interwoven mass of hyphae is called a mycelium菌絲體 . The walls of hyphae are often strengthened with chitin基丁質 (not found in plant or bacteria)

Classification of Fungi : 

Classification of Fungi Ascomycete 子囊菌 Basidiomycete 擔子菌 (mushroom) Deuteromycete 半知菌 Oomycete (water molds) Zygomycete 接合菌 (bread mold)

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Penicillium blue-green colony on agar Microscopic view of phialospores 小梗孢子

Algae 藻類 : 

Algae 藻類 Photosynthetic phytoplankton  major primary producers in water All contain chlorophyll a and form chloroplast Occur as single cell or cell clusters (membranous or filament) Microalgae; macroalgae (giant kelp)

Chlorophyll classification : 

Chlorophyll classification

Microscopic algae : 

Microscopic algae Euglena 裸藻 (眼蟲)

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A single cell of one type of green algae, Micrasterias微星藻

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Colonial growth of Volvox 團藻 Packet growth (4 cells) of Scenedesmus 柵藻

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Algae other than green algae

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Algal Bloom 藻華現象  Eutrophication 優氧化 Problems of too much algal growth

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“Red tide”, a massive growth of toxin-producing marine algae Decaying lesions of a dead fish killed by algal poisoning

Protozoa : 

Protozoa single-celled, heterotrophic eukaryotes size: 3~300 m in general No cell wall; movement; most in aquatic habitat injest bacteria and small organic particulates 4 major groups: Sarcodina (amoeba), Mastigophora (flagellates), Ciliophora(ciliates), Sporozoa

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Protozoa Amoeba Paramecium Mastigophora Plasmodium 變形蟲 (肉足綱) 草履蟲 (纖毛蟲綱) 鞭毛蟲 (鞭毛蟲綱) 瘧原蟲 (孢子蟲綱)

Virus 病毒 : 

Virus 病毒 A genetic element (DNA or RNA) that can replicates in cell (Host) independently of host chromosome but dependently on metabolic machinery of host cell.  absolutely parasitic Not considered as “living” entities viral nucleic acid surrounded by protein Size of virus: 0.015~0.3 μm (15~300 nm) Cause disease and death

病毒 : 

蛋白質 脂肪膜 基因:DNA 或 RNA 形狀:立方體形或螺旋形 外表脂肪膜:有或無 病毒

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Influenza virus, an enveloped virus Bacteriophage T4

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Virus Replication High specificity

Multicellular microorganism多細胞原生動物 : 

Multicellular microorganism多細胞原生動物 輪蟲Rotifer、Nematodes線蟲、Crustacea甲殼類(brine shrimp) 輪蟲:最簡單多細胞微小動物,絕對好氧,捕食bacteria, algae及懸浮有機物。常在低有機負荷水中發現,可做為二級處理之指標生物。

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水蚤 Daphnia Crustacean 甲殼類- 有硬殼 劍水蚤Cyclops 鹹水蝦 Brine shrimp

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Microorganisms are ubiquitous in the Earth (Biosphere 生物圈, 包含air, water, soil, organism ) Forms of microorganism: vegetative cell or dormant (spore, zygote, cyst….) Roles of microorganisms Producer – algae, photosynthetic bacteria Decomposer – fungi, most bacteria, protozoa  Biogeochemical Cycle 生物地球化學循環,生 物地質循環

Biogeochemical Cycle : 

Biogeochemical Cycle Nutrient cycle “Movement and conversion of materials by biochemical activities within the ecosphere” Include 2 processes Physical transformation: dissolution, precipitation, volatilization, fixation Chemical transformation: biosynthesis, biodegradation, biotransformation

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Reservoir (Sink) Living organisms

Biogeochemical Cycle : 

Biogeochemical Cycle Major elemental components of living organisms cycled most intensely (C, H, O, N, P, S), while minor elements cycled less intensely All living organisms (macro- /micro-organism) participate. Microorganisms play a major role in biogeochemical cycle due to their ubiquity, diverse metabolic abilities and high enzyme reaction rates

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The Carbon Cycle CO2

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Biosphere carbon (and H, O) cycle

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有機物在厭氧下之生物分解 有機物 有機酸 甲烷 CO2 H2 Biomass CO2 Biomass Fermentative microbe, Acetogen Methanogen 水解 酸化 乙酸化 甲烷化

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The Nitrogen Cycle

The Sulfur Cycle : 

The Sulfur Cycle Animal manures and biosolids Mineral fertilizers Crop harvest Runoff and erosion Leaching Absorbed or mineral sulfur Plant residues Plant uptake Sulfate Sulfur (SO4) Atmospheric sulfur Elemental sulfur Organic sulfur Immobilization Mineralization Bacterial reduction Bacterial oxidation Oxidation SO2 gas Reduced sulfur Input to soil Component Loss from soil Volatilization Atmospheric deposition -

微生物在環工之應用 : 

微生物在環工之應用 正面影響 處理廢污水 (Metabolism) 水體污染生物指標 處理程度指標 水體自淨作用 負面影響 傳染性疾病 管線腐蝕 臭味問題 堵塞、縮短流程

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Microbial metal corrosion Fe2+ + 2H2O → Fe(OH)2 +H2 (自然反應) 4H2 + SO42- → H2S + 2OH- +2H2O (SRB) H2S + Fe2+ → FeS↓+ H2 (自然反應)

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H2SO4 + Ca(OH)2 石灰 → CaSO4 石膏+ 2H2O Sulfur oxidizer (Thiobacillus) H2S + O →H SO + Energy 2 4 Thiobacillus thiooxidans 2 2 2 Crown corrosion in sewers (下水道「皇冠」腐蝕)

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