Extremophiles : Extremophiles By-
PAWAN KALANI Hyperthermophiles
Halophiles EXTREMOPHILES : EXTREMOPHILES An extremophile is an organism that thrives in and even may require physically or geochemically extreme conditions that are detrimental to the majority of life on earth
It is derived from- Latin extremus meaning "extreme" and Greek philiā meaning "love“. Types of extremophiles : Types of extremophiles Acidophile
An organism with optimal growth at pH levels of 3 or below
An organism with optimal growth at pH levels of 9 or above
An organism requiring at least 0.2M concentrations of salt (NaCl) for growth
An organism that can thrive at temperatures between 80–122 °C, such as those found in hydrothermal systems HYPERTHERMOPHILE : HYPERTHERMOPHILE A hyperthermophile is an organism thrives in extremely hot environments: 60 degrees C (140 degrees F) upwards , some bacteria are able to tolerate temperatures around 100°C
Hyperthermophiles first discovered by Thomas D. Brock ( 1969), in hot springs in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming
Eg. Pyrolobus fumarii,Pyrococcus furiosus Hyperthermophiles – How they manage to survive : Hyperthermophiles – How they manage to survive Protein molecules in Hyperthermophiles can maintain structural stability (and therefore function) at high temperatures.
overrepresentation of purine bases in protein coding sequences and higher GC-content in tRNA/rRNA sequences.
G:C pairs DNA are more thermally stable than adenosine: thymine pairs, high GC content may have a selective response to high temperature :specifically 5’-GC-3’ content high. Methanococcus jannaschii—a methane-producing extremophile that thrives at temperatures near 85 degrees Celsius Slide 9: Hyperthermophiles Hydrothermal Vents- Black smokers at 350 oC Obsidian Pool,
Yellowstone National Park Applications of hyperthermophiles : Applications of hyperthermophiles hyperthermostable proteins are commercially important, chemical reactions proceed faster at high temperatures. - Bakery, glucose and fructose production
. microbe’s isolated DNA polymerase (Taq polymerase). Its high tolerance for heat led to the development of totally automated PCR technology.
More recently, some users of PCR have replaced the Taq polymerase with Pfu polymerase. This enzyme, isolated from the hyperthermophile Pyrococcus furiosus (“flaming fireballA different heat-loving extremozyme in commercial use has increased the efficiency with which compounds called cyclodextrins are produced from cornstarch.
Liposomes for drug administration Lipids from hyperthermophiles
For nanotechnology applications.s Acidophiles and Alkaliphiles : Acidophiles and Alkaliphiles Acidophiles and Alkaliphiles prefer highly acidic or basic conditions .
Acidophiles thrive in the rare habitats having a pH below five
alkaliphiles favor habitats with a pH above nine.
Acidophiles - Acidic
Again some thermal vents & hot springs
Alkaliphiles - Alkaline
Soda lakes in Africa and Western U.S. Slide 12: Acidophiles
Alkaliphiles Acidophiles : Acidophiles Found in production of sulfurous gases in hydrothermal vents and some hot springs and from the metabolic activities of certain acidophiles themselves.
debris left over from coal mining.
Interestingly, acid-loving extremophiles cannot tolerate great acidity inside their cells, where it would destroy such important molecules as DNA. They survive by keeping the acid out.
extremozymes that are able to work at a pH below one—more acidic than even vinegar or stomach fluids—have been isolated from the cell wall and underlying cell membrane of some acidophiles. : The use of enzymes in feed is already quite popular. The enzymes that are selected are ones that microbes normally secrete into the environment to break food into pieces suitable for ingestion.
When added to feed, the enzymes improve the digestibility of inexpensive grains, thereby avoiding the need for more expensive food
applied microbial biotechnologies such as biomining, bioshrouding, biomonitoring and bioremediation of metals in acidic environments.
Biohydrometallurgy is a novel method to recycle discarded batteries, in which sewage sludge is used as microorganisms and culture due to the presence of indigenous Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. Potential applications Slide 15: Alkaliphiles Mono Lake- alkaline
soda lake, pH 9 &
salinity 8% Alkaliphiles : Alkaliphiles Alkaliphiles live in soils laden with carbonate and in so-called soda lakes, such as those found in Egypt, the Rift Valley of Africa and the western U.S.
alkaliphiles maintain neutrality in their interior, and their extremozymes are located on or near the cell surface and in external secretions.
Detergents- To work effectively, detergents must be able to cope with stains from food and other sources of grease—jobs best accomplished by such enzymes as proteases (protein degraders) and lipases (grease degraders)
Fashion and Textile Industry - Alkaliphilic extremozymes are also poised to replace standard enzymes wielded to produce the stonewashed look in denim fabric. EXAMPLES : EXAMPLES Halophiles : Halophiles are organisms that live in environments with extremely high salt concentrations
some extreme halophiles can live in solutions of 35 % salt. (seawater is only 3% salt!)
halophile means “salt loving”
most halophiles are aerobic and heterotrophic; others are anaerobic and photosynthetic, containing the pigment bacteriorhodopsin
Eg- Halobacterium and halococcus Diversity of Halophilic Organisms : Diversity of Halophilic Organisms halophiles are found in salt lakes, salt marshes, subterranean salt deposits, dry soils, salted meats, hypersaline seas, and salt evaporation pools
the Red Sea was named after the halobacterium that turns the water red during massive blooms. How do they survive??? : How do they survive??? halophhiles increases osmolarity of the cell to prevent dessication.they do so by two methods-
1. Accumulation of organic compound in cytoplasm
2. selective influx of potassium (K+) ions into the cytoplasm
Some species of halobacteria have acidic proteins that resist the denaturing effects of salts. Halococcus is a specific genus of the family Halobacterium. Slide 21: Halophiles Applications : Applications The extraction of carotene from carotene rich halobacteria and halophilic algae that can then be used as food additives or as food-coloring agents.
The use of halophilic organisms in the fermentation of soy sauce and Thai fish sauce.eg. Chrohalobacter beijerincikii.
Re writeable films of high resolution Hologram memories - Bacteriorhodopsin from halophiles – HVD future – future 50TB storage capacity 50 years . Other possible applications being explored:
Increasing crude oil extraction
Genetically engineering halophilic enzymes encoding DNA into crops to allow for salt tolerance
Treatment of waste water (petroleum) Slide 23: THANK YOU.........