Bronchial asthma disease

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this ppt talks about bronchial astham . how it occurs . types. treatment. method of prevention


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بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم IN THE NAME OF ALLAH 6/15/2008 1 PHYSIOLOGY PRESENTATION

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OBJECTIVES: To give an introduction about asthma. Signs & symptoms. How to diagnose it?. Bases of treatment. Types of treatments. Ways of prevention. 6/15/2008 PHYSIOLOGY PRESENTATION 3


INTRODUCTION: Definition: Asthma is a chronic condition involving the respiratory system in which the airways occasionally constricts, becomes inflamed, and is lined with excessive amounts of mucus, often in response to one or more triggers. 6/15/2008 PHYSIOLOGY PRESENTATION 4

Triggers: : 

Triggers: Tobacco smoke. Infections such as colds, flu, or pneumonia . Allergens such as food, pollen, mold, dust mites, and pet dander Exercise . Air pollution and toxins . Weather, especially extreme changes in temperature Drugs (such as aspirin, NSAID, and beta-blockers) Food additives (such as MSG) Emotional stress and anxiety . Singing, laughing, or crying . Smoking, perfumes, or sprays . Acid reflux . 6/15/2008 PHYSIOLOGY PRESENTATION 5

Signs & Symptoms: : 

Signs & Symptoms: Shortness of breath . Tightness of chest . Excessive coughing or a cough that keeps you awake at night . Feeling very tired or weak when exercising. Wheezing or coughing after exercise . Decreases or changes in lung function as measured on a peak flow meter . Signs of a cold, or allergies (sneezing, runny nose, cough, nasal congestion, sore throat, and headache) . Trouble sleeping . 6/15/2008 PHYSIOLOGY PRESENTATION 6

Diagnosis: : 

Diagnosis: Asthma can be diagnosed by taking the history of the patient & clinical examination. Usually patient who suffers from an allergic conditions & has a family history of asthma diagnosed to has asthma. Some devices are used to improve the finding of asthma like : Spirometer (measuring the pulmonary function test). Peak flow rate ( measured in rest & in exercise ) Because some patient have only (exercise-induced asthma) 6/15/2008 PHYSIOLOGY PRESENTATION 7

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Capnography (measures the amount of exhaled CO2 . Pulse oximetry (shows the amounts of O2 dissolved in blood. 6/15/2008 PHYSIOLOGY PRESENTATION 8

Pulmonary function test (Spirometer): : 

Pulmonary function test (Spirometer): 6/15/2008 PHYSIOLOGY PRESENTATION 9 TV = Tidal volume (500ml) IRV = Inspiratory reserve volume (3,000 ml) IC = Inspiratory capacity (3,500 ml) ERV = Expiratory reserve volume (1,000 ml) RV = Residual volume (1,200 ml) FRC = Functional residual capacity (2,200 ml) VC = Vital capacity (4,500 ml) TLC = Total lung capacity (5,700 ml)


OBSTRUCTIVE LUNG DISEASE 6/15/2008 PHYSIOLOGY PRESENTATION 10 Because of the bronchoconstriction specially during Expiration ERV decreased NOTE : FEV1/VC%:=FEV1%= % of total VC expired in 1st second = Less than 80% in asthma.

Treatment: : 

Treatment: Bases of treatments: one way is to relaxes the muscles during expiration. 6/15/2008 PHYSIOLOGY PRESENTATION 11

Drugs used in treatment: : 

Drugs used in treatment: Anti-inflammatories reduce the number of inflammatory cells in the airways and prevent blood vessels from leaking fluid into the airway tissues. (Specially leukotriene inhibitors). Corticosteroids. Bronchodilators work by increasing the diameter of the air passages and easing the flow of gases to and from the lungs.(metaproterenol (Alupent, Metaprel), ephedrine, terbutaline , & Atrophine sulfate ). 6/15/2008 PHYSIOLOGY PRESENTATION 12

Prevention: : 

Prevention: One method of prevention is to form at least yearly medical exam specially for the major systems. Today, some drugs are used to prevent it: Corticosteroids. Glucocorticoids (Cortisone) because we said that cortisol has a permissive action to catecholeamine which induces VC & BD. Anti- inflammatory drugs (specially anti-histamine). 6/15/2008 PHYSIOLOGY PRESENTATION 13


SUMMARY Bronchial asthma definition. Some examples of substances which triggers asthma. Signs & Symptoms related to it. How to diagnose it?. Devices used to investigate asthma. Graphs . Important informations which determine asthma. Bases of treatment. Drugs used in treatment of asthma. Prevention. 6/15/2008 PHYSIOLOGY PRESENTATION 14

References: : 

References: Harrison’s Principle of Internal Medicine 16th ED . Pages 1508-1516. CH :42 page 529-530 Guyton & Hall textbook of medical physiology. CH :13 pages 508-523 DAVIDSON’S PRINCIPLE & PRACTICE OF MEDICINE 20th ED. 6/15/2008 PHYSIOLOGY PRESENTATION 15

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