Quality Function Deployment

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A Presentation on Quality Function Deployment by Patanjal Kumar:

A Presentation on Quality Function Deployment by Patanjal Kumar 1

Content of Presentation:

Content of Presentation Introduction History Defining QFD Purpose When to use How to use QFD matrix: the House of Quality Research trend on QFD Literature review 2 Applying Quality Function Deployment Identifying customer requirements Identifying product and engineering design requirements Drawing up a relationship matrix Planning and deploying expected quality (by listing customer requirements in order of importance and benchmarking competitive products) Comparing technical characteristics (through a technical importance ranking) Analyzing the correlations existing between the various characteristics (correlation matrix ) Building a house of quality Example HoQ in excel Benefits Managing QFD

Introduction:

3 QFD Adams and Gavoor Bossert Garvin Hauser and Clausing A set of planning and communication routines, Quality Function Deployment focuses and coordinates skills within an organization, first to design, then to manufacture and market goods that customers want to purchase and will continue to purchase. QFD is a process that provides structure to the development cycle where the primary focus is the customer requirements A detailed planning and design process support technique applicable to any design process whether for services or products aimed at translating “the voice of the customer” into company specifications at every stage of the product introduction process. QFD may be defined as elaborate charts to translate perceptions of quality into product characteristics and product characteristics into fabrication and assembly requirements. In this way “the voice of the customer” is deployed throughout the company Introduction History Quality function deployment (QFD) is a technique which was born in Japan as a strategy for assuring that quality is built into new products. QFD was first used in 1972 by Kobe Shipyard of Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd and was then referred to as the quality tables. Defining QFD 42% or more than 42% companies in Japan are following QFD

Introduction:

Introduction Purpose A technique or discipline for optimizing the process of developing and producing new products on the basis of customer need . 4 When to use During design , commissioning or post-commissioning to translate customer requirements into company requirements . The technique can be used in research , product development, engineering, manufacturing, marketing and distribution areas How to use Identify customer need and wants Requirements translated in to technical specifications Technical requirements to end product specifications To design the process to deliver the product or services To plan the activities necessary to produce the required output

Slide5:

QFD matrix: the House of Quality 5 Introduction           Technical descriptor (Voice of the company) Inter relationship between technical descriptor Customers’ requirements (Voice of customers) Relationship among requirements and descriptors Prioritized technical descriptors Prioritized customer requirements Importance Competitive requirements Market potentials

Research trend on QFD :

Research trend on QFD 6

Research trend on QFD :

Research trend on QFD 7

Literature review- Early adaptor of QFD in USA :

Literature review- Early adaptor of QFD in USA 8 Chan, L.K. and Wu, M.L., 2002. Quality function deployment: A literature review.  European journal of operational research ,  143 (3), pp.463-497.

Slide9:

9 Applying Quality Function Deployment 1. Identifying customer requirements 2. Identifying product and engineering design requirements 3. Drawing up a relationship matrix 4. Planning and deploying expected quality (by listing customer requirements in order of importance and benchmarking competitive products ) 5. Comparing technical characteristics (through a technical importance ranking) 6. Analyzing the correlations existing between the various characteristics (correlation matrix) Steps

Applying Quality Function Deployment:

Applying Quality Function Deployment Step 1: Identifying customer requirements 10 Determining who customer are ? W hich particular type of market and End user to focus on M arket research Specific surveys on significantly representative groups of customers–users Information from marketing Technical maintenance data Complaints studies Panels of significant customers Brainstorming among company specialists Contacting representative groups of customers

Slide11:

11 Constructing the expected quality table To rationally group requests into similar categories, affinity diagrams or the hierarchical cluster analysis may be used. Organization of Information Phrase the objective Record all responses Organize groups in an affinity diagram Group the responses

Affinity diagram:

Affinity diagram Affinity diagrams allow us to define clusters of requirements, according to the type of function they serve or to the type of problems involved, starting from the initial cluster of requisites. Clusters are formed according to team members’ opinions. 12 The hierarchical cluster analysis, or semantic clustering, on the other hand, is based on customers’ opinions. Hierarchical cluster analysis Techniques used to determine customers requirements What we want to determine from this type of analysis is the customer requirements; to this end several techniques have been perfected Personal interviews Focus groups Structured qualitative techniques Product analysis techniques

Slide13:

Product Perceptual Map 13 A company wishing to create a successful product must know how similar products already existent on the market are perceived by customers. Evaluating the importance of attributes The first method consists of directly evaluating the importance of a list of attributes, asking customers to express the weight they think they ought to assign to each element, by filling in a relevant questionnaire Another method consists of asking individual customers to express their evaluations using a numerical value, for example, from 1 to 5, for each attribute identified Another sort of evaluation is that of allocating 100 points across the five dimensions according to how important each determinant is perceived.

Applying Quality Function Deployment:

Step 2: Identifying product and engineering design requirements 14 Applying Quality Function Deployment

Applying Quality Function Deployment:

Step 3: Drawing up a relationship matrix 15 Applying Quality Function Deployment The interfunctional team’s successive task is to fill in the body of the HoQ, constituted by the so-called relationship matrix , which indicates how the technical decisions affect the satisfaction of each customer requirement. Step 4: Expected quality deployment This process, called quality planning, is based on the classification and prioritization of customers’ expectations and on the comparative analysis from the customers’ points of view. A more adequate approach to the prioritization of customer requirements would involve the use of the analytical hierarchy process (AHP)

Applying Quality Function Deployment:

Applying Quality Function Deployment 16 According to research conducted by Kano, actually, the quality attributes defined by the customer may be subdivided into five categories Type B (basic) attributes, or must be or expected Type O (one-dimensional) attributes Type E (excitement) attributes Type I (indifferent) attributes Type R (reverse) attributes Benchmarking on the basis of perceived quality This phase is called the analysis of competitiveness from a customer point of view or benchmarking on the basis of perceived quality.

Applying Quality Function Deployment:

Target values of expectation 17 Applying Quality Function Deployment On the basis of an analysis of the priority levels assigned to the various requirements, the sales characteristics or strengths of a given product can be established Step 5: Comparing technical characteristics (through a technical importance ranking) Evaluating the importance of characteristics Technical benchmarking Determining target values The correlation matrix placed over the “roof” of the HoQ, is triangular in shape and is situated over the area of product characteristics. This matrix allows us to describe the correlation existing among the various technical characteristics, representing the positive or negative trend and the intensity of each correlation. Step 6: Analyzing the correlations existing between the various characteristics (correlation matrix)

Building a House of Quality :

Building a House of Quality Step 1: List customer requirements (WHATSs) 18 Market research Specific surveys on significantly representative groups of customers–users Information from marketing Technical maintenance data

Building a House of Quality :

19 Building a House of Quality Step 2: List technical descriptors (HOWs) Brainstorming among the engineering staff is a suggested method for determining the technical descriptors.

Building a House of Quality :

20 Building a House of Quality Step 3: Develop relationship between WHATs and HOWs This step may take long time , because number of evaluations is the product of number of requirements and number of technical descriptors Doing in early stage will shorten the development cycle and shorten the future changes.

Building a House of Quality :

21 Building a House of Quality Step 4: Develop an interrelationship matrix between HOWs This diagram allows the user to identify which technical descriptors support another and which are in conflict. Conflicting technical descriptor are extremely important.---- Tradeoffs

Building a House of Quality :

22 Building a House of Quality Step 5: Competitive Assessments Customer competitive assessment Technical competitive assessment

Building a House of Quality :

23 Building a House of Quality Step 6: Develop prioritized customer requirements Importance to customer Target value Scale up factor Sales point Absolut weight Relative weight

Building a House of Quality :

24 Building a House of Quality Step 7: Develop prioritized technical descriptors Degree of difficulty Target value Absolute weight Relative weight The higher absolute and relative weight ratings identify areas where engineering efforts need to be concentrated. The greater values of relative weight also indicate that the handlebar stem should be an aluminum decanting

Benefits:

Benefits 25 Quality function deployment encourages organizations to focus on the process itself rather than just on the product or service . By establishing correlations between what is wanted and how it is to be delivered, the vital aspects become more visible , aiding decision-making. . Improve customer satisfaction Reduce implementation time Promotes teamwork Provide documentation

Slide26:

26 Provide the time Demonstrate your commitment Push for progress, but not too hard Be realistic Review the charts - make sure you understand Set priorities if needed Help the team through the rough spots Keep asking the right questions Spans a major portion of the product development process Identify key milestones Major projects will require 50-60 hours of meetings Meetings are used to coordinate activities and update charts Most of the work happens outside the meetings Management Support of the Team Timing Managing the QFD Process

Slide27:

27 Common Pitfalls Blank rows Unfulfilled customer wants Blank columns Unnecessary requirements Incomplete customer wants Rows or columns with only weak relationships Banking a lot on “maybe’s ” Unmeasurable “HOWs” Difficult to do what can’t be measured Too many relationships More than 50% relationships make it hard to prioritise Opportunities to excel Negative correlations Try to eliminate Trade off if needed Conflicting competitive assessments QFD on everything Inadequate priorities Lack of teamwork Wrong participants Turf issues Lack of team skills Lack of support Too much “chart focus ” Handling trade-offs Too much internal focus “Stuck on tradition ” “Hurry up and get done ” Failure to integrate QFD What to look for Managing the QFD Process

Managing the QFD Process:

28 Managing the QFD Process How was the voice of the customer determined ? How were the design requirements ( etc ) determined? Challenge the usual in-house standards . How do we compare to our competition ? What opportunities can we identify to gain a competitive edge ? What further information do we need? How can we get it ? How can we proceed with what we have ? What trade-off decisions are needed ? What can I do to help? The process may look simple, but requires effort . Many of the entries look obvious - after they are written down . If there aren’t some “tough spots” the first time, it probably isn’t being done right ! Focus on the end-user customer . Charts are not the objective . Charts are the means of achieving the objective . Find reasons to succeed, not excuses for failure. Some “Right Questions” Points to Remember

Thanks:

Thanks 29

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