The Life and Times of Ada Byron : The Life and Times of Ada Byron The early years…
Lady Augusta Ada Byron King,Countess of Lovelace : Lady Augusta Ada Byron King,Countess of Lovelace Born: London, England, December 10, 1815 Died: London, England, November 27, 1852
Education in the 19th century. : Education in the 19th century. Women did not require the same level of education as men.
Women of the time were schooled in;
Raising children
The running of a household.
Women wanting to study such things as mathematics and science were often the focus of much ridicule. Ada Byron was one woman who overcame these social
restrictions, and is today known as the first computer programmer.
Ada’s Parents : Ada’s Parents Isabelle Millbanke
Strong moral principles
Interested in Mathematics
Lord George Gordon Byron
Heavy drinker, prone to dark moods.
Gambling debts
Died abroad at age of 36
Slide 5: Ada enjoyed deciphering the workings of mechanical things, and at the age of twelve combined this interest with wanting to fly. She studied the anatomy of birds, and using the knowledge she gained, and choosing the best of materials, she designed wings. She also thought of ways to add steam power. At the age of seventeen, during a dinner party at Mary Somerville’s home, Ada was introduced to the famous mathematician and inventor, Charles Babbage.
Charles Babbage : Charles Babbage "I wish to God these calculations had been executed by steam"
To give him his full title : To give him his full title ESQ., M.A., F.R.S., F.R.S.E., F.R.A.S., F. STAT. S., HON. M.R.I.A., M.C.P.S., COMMANDER OF THE ITALIAN ORDER OF ST. MAURICE AND ST. LAZARUS, INST. IMP. (ACAD. MORAL.) PARIS CORR., ACAD. AMER. ART. ET SC. BOSTON, REG. OECON. BORUSS., PHYS. HIST. NAT. GENEV., ACAD. REG. MONAC., HAFN., MASSIL., ET DIVION., SOCIUS. ACAD. IMP. ET REG. PETROP., NEAP., BRUX., PATAV., GEORG. FLOREN., LYNCEI. ROM., MUT., PHILOMATH. PARIS, SOC. CORR., ETC
Babbage in a nutshell : Babbage in a nutshell was an expert lock-picker,
inventor of the heliograph,
the cowcatcher,
the first speedometer,
occulting lights for lighthouses,
standard railway gauges,
standard screw threads
device for walking on water that almost worked. He was also the father of the modern computer
Why create these ‘computers’ in the first place? : Why create these ‘computers’ in the first place? At the time all ‘calculations’ were done using tables.
These could range from Astronomy and Artillery, to ship and bridge design to calculating interest on a loan
A lot of these tables were created by ‘calculators’, literally people who did calculations.
Enter Babbage : Enter Babbage Babbage decided that there must be a mechanical method that would eliminate the human error He based the design on the simple principal of finite differences – thus the ‘difference engine’ LEGO Difference Engine
Slide 11: Theoretical Mathematics Ahead!!
How does all this ‘difference’ stuff work anyway? : How does all this ‘difference’ stuff work anyway? x F(x) x²+4 Difference 1 Difference 2 0 4 1 2 1 5 3 2 2 8 5 2 3 13 7 2 4 20 9 2 5 29 11 2 6 40 13 2 7 53 15 2 8 68 17 2 9 85
This goes for any degree polynomial : This goes for any degree polynomial
All very nice, but how will that make my bombs hit their target? : All very nice, but how will that make my bombs hit their target? Any equation can be approximated by the idea of ‘curve fitting’
Bringing everything together : Bringing everything together Taking the idea of finite differences
The idea of curve fitting
Any system that can be represented by curve can be solved by simple addition and subtraction!
Ada's Contribution : Ada's Contribution
Slide 18: Ada and Charles Babbage quickly became friends because of their shared interests in mathematics and logic.
When in In 1842 and Italian Mathematician L.F. Macabre published a descriptive paper on difference engine Charles Babbage enlisted Ada to translate the paper to English as Ada Was a brilliant mathematician herself Babbage insisted that Ada add her own notes to the translation
Ada’s Notes : Ada’s Notes These notes turned out to be 3 times the length of the original article
A transcription of Ada's notes, originally published around 1843, can be found here: http://www.fourmilab.ch/babbage/sketch.html
In these notes she considers the computational potential of the Analytical engine, including the possibility of integrating and differentiating functions numerically, and in certain cases, symbolically.
Slide 20: This was a remarkable leap of understanding one that did not see a full implementation into the mainstream of computing and mathematics until well over a hundred years later
She wrote a detailed description of the computation of Bernoulli numbers, remarking that there are many identities which define them, and choosing a particular one as the basis for her algorithm.
Slide 21: It is fascinating to note that the computation of these numbers still seems to have a certain mystery - Wikipedia notes that "There is a widespread misinformation that no simple closed formulas for the Bernoulli numbers exist.“
It was not until 1999 that Akiyama and Tanigawa two Japanese mathematicians discovered a relatively simple algorithm to calculate Bernoulli numbers,
While Ada had presented a computable method 156 years prior to this
Slide 22: Following is the polished up version of Ada’s program to calculate of Bernoulli numbers 167 years later written in C like language
The Later Years. : The Later Years. In 1835, Ada married William King.
She had three children, Byron, Annabelle, and Ralph.
She became Lady Lovelace in 1838.
Her interest in Babbage’s invention was kept secret.
There was supposed excessive use of alcohol and also suspected drug use.
Working with Babbage : Working with Babbage Babbage's original ideas for the Difference engine related to the calculation of
mathematical equations and nautical chart numbers for navigation, however
theories suggest that Ada saw different applications, such as gambling on horse
races.
For that purpose, she developed a formula to render racehorses as numeric
values: weight, speed in past races, places won, jockey’s height, horse’s leg
length, horse’s age, etc. These values could be plugged into the Difference
Engine to produce what would today be called odds.
It is suggested that this was attempted, but as they failed to account for
chance the system failed, leading to Ada losing a considerable amount of her
husbands fortune and leading her into debt
Ada died of cancer in November, 1852. Some people have made comparisons between Ada and her father, both died at 36, in debt and shared the same dark moods in spite of her mothers efforts.
Ada Today. : Ada Today. Only today is the full influence of Ada’s contribution to computing being realised. A
In recognition of her the DoD in 1970 named a Pascal based language after her ADA
24th March is Ada Lovelace day
Lovelace medal awarded by the BCS, the Chartered Institute for IT,
‘ADA’ compiler available for java
Slide 26: Thank you for listening!!
Any Questions?