Microbial Metabolic Products

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Fermentation technology


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Microbial Metabolic Products:

Microbial Metabolic Products Department of Pharmaceutics, AKAL COLLEGE OF PHARMACY & Tech.Edu . Submitted by: Neetika Bhalla

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Micro organisms possess tremendous capacity to produce wide range of products that have commercial value. Primary and secondary metabolites have importance for formation of biotechnologically important products.

Primary Metabolites:

Primary Metabolites Primary metabolism is also called TROPOPHASE . Characterized by balanced growth of micro organisms. Essential for existence and reproduction of cells. During period of tropophase exponential growth of micro organisms occur. For industrial over production the regulatory mechanisms are suitably manipulated

Types Of Primary Metabolites:

Types Of Primary Metabolites Primary Essential Metabolites- ( vitamins , amino acids) Primary Metabolic End Products –( Ethanol, Acetone)

Limitations In Growth:

Limitations In Growth Due to limited supply of any nutrient, growth rate of micro organisms slows down. But metabolism does not stop ; it continues as long as the cell lives, but formation of products differ.

Over Production Of Primary Metabolites:

Over Production Of Primary Metabolites By using auxotropic mutants - It causes blockage in one of steps in biosynthetic pathway concerned with formation of primary metabolite. Anti- metabolite Resistance in Mutants – Exhibit defective metabolic regulation which over produce primary metabolites.

Secondary Metabolites:

Secondary Metabolites Formation occurs in idiophase . Not required by microbes. Industrially useful. Examples- Antibiotics , Steroids, Alkaloids.


Characteristics Specifically produced by microbes. Not essential for growth. Environmental factors affect production. In some cases, produced as group of compounds. Regulation is complex.

Functions Of Secondary Metabolites:

Functions Of Secondary Metabolites May perform functions beneficial for survival of cells. They have no function. Their production alone is important for cells.

Over Production Of Secondary Metabolites:

Over Production Of Secondary Metabolites Regulatory Mechanisms Are :- Induction:- Tryptophan regulates ergot alkaloid biosynthesis. End Product Regulation:- Isolate mutants that are sensitive to end product inhibition. Catabolic Regulation:- Mechanism not understood. Catabolic repression achieved using carbon or nitrogen source.

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Phosphate Regulation Increasing phosphate concentration is associated with increased secondary metabolite production . Example- Antibiotics. Very high concentration of Pi is inhibitory. Mechanism is not clear.

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Auto regulation:- In actinomycetes , self regulation for production of secondary metabolites occur. Factor-A is believed to be involved in auto regulation for production of Streptomycin by Streptomyces griseus .

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Secondary metabolites Source Applications 1.Atropine Atropa belladona Anticholinergic agent 2.Quinine Cinchona Antimalarial 3.Digoxin Digitalis Cardiac tonic 4.Vincristine Catharanthus roseus Anticancer

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