Deficiency Diseases : Deficiency Diseases By Aprna Jha A PPt Show Slide 2: There are more than 50 known nutrients in food. Nutrients enable body tissues to grow and maintain themselves. They contribute to the energy requirements of the individual organism and they regulate the processes of the body. Carbohydrates, fats, and proteins provide the body with energy. The energy producing component of food is measured in calories. INTRODUCTION REASONS FOR DEFIENCY DISEASES : REASONS FOR DEFIENCY DISEASES Aside from the water and fiber content of food, which are also important for their role in nutrition, the nutrients that serve functions other than energy production can be classified into four different groups: vitamins, fats, proteins, and minerals. All are necessary for proper body function and survival. Slide 4: Nutrient deficiency diseases occur when there is an absence of nutrients which are essential for growth and health. Lack of food leading to either malnutrition or starvation gives rise to these diseases. Another cause for a deficiency disease may be due to a structural or biological imbalance in the individual's metabolic system. Slide 5: Many diseases in humans are directly or indirectly caused by improper eating habits and malnutrition. These include, but are not limited to, deficiency diseases, caused by a lack of essential nutrients.Additionally, several diseases are directly or indirectly impacted by dietary habits, and require very close attention to the nutrient content of food. DETAILS OF MAJOR DEFICIENCY DISEASES : DETAILS OF MAJOR DEFICIENCY DISEASES Calories
Obesity, which in turn can lead to diseases such as cardiovascular disease and diabetes.
Obesity is a condition in which the natural energy reserve, stored in the fatty tissue of humans and other mammals, is increased to a point where it is assoiated with certain health conditions or increased mortality.
Metabolic or nutritionally related disease such as diabetes mellitus or endemic goiter Slide 7: Vitamins
Refers to a condition of overly high storage levels of vitamins, which can lead to toxic symptoms. The medical names of the different conditions are derived from the vitamin involved: an excess of vitamin A, for example, is called "hypervitaminosis A".
Micro minerals and macro minerals
Iron overload disorder
Iron overload disorders are diseases caused by the over accumulation of iron in the body. Organs commonly affected are the liver, heart and endocrine glands. Deficiencies (eating too little)Malnutrition : Deficiencies (eating too little)Malnutrition Proteins/fats/carbohydrates
Mental retardation Dietary vitamins and minerals
Iron deficiency Zinc
Vitamin B1, Thiamine
Vitamin B3, Niacin
Rickets Slide 9: There are about 25 mineral elements in the body usually appearing in the form of simple salts. Those which appear in large amounts are called macro minerals while those that are in small or trace amounts are micro minerals. Some that are essential are calcium, phosphorous, cobalt, copper, fluorine, iodine, iron, sodium, chromium, and tin. Aluminum, lead, and mercury are not as essential. Types of Vitamin Deficiencies : Types of Vitamin Deficiencies Vitamin AVitamin A deficiency usually results from inadequate intake of foods that are high in vitamin A. This includes foods like liver, kidney, butter, milk, cream, cheese, and fortified margarine and the deficiency typically occurs in children in underdeveloped countries. The recommended daily allowance for vitamin A is 1 mg for adult males and 0.8 mg for adult females. Some of the results of the deficiency include:
- Bitot spots (keratin buildup and debris located superficially in the conjunctiva)- Blindness due to retinal injury - Night blindness- Dry skin - Dry hair - Broken fingernails Slide 11: Thiamine Thiamine vitamin deficiency results from an inadequate dietary intake of vitamin B1, and can also be a residual effect of alcoholism or a prolonged bout of diarrhea. Serious thiamine-deficiency is most prevalent in Asians (as Beriberi) because their diets subsists mainly of unenriched rice and wheat.
Riboflavin This deficiency results from a diet deficient in milk, meat, fish, legumes, and green, leafy vegetables. Just as with Thiamine, alcoholism or prolonged diarrhea may also induce a riboflavin deficiency. Also, consuming milk that has been exposed to sunlight or treating legumes (beans) with baking soda can destroy the Riboflavin vitamin, leaving a person vulnerable to the disease. Slide 12: Niacin Niacin produces pellagra, a substance which affects the skin, central nervous system and the gastrointestinal tract. Once commonly found among Southerners whose main diets consisted mainly of corn and minimal protein consumption. Today, the deficiency is seldom found in the United States, but is still quite common in parts of Egypt, Romania, Africa, Serbia, and Montenegro where corn is still a dominant staple food.
CobalaminThe Cobalamin deficiency’s primary cause is a diet lacking in vitamin C-rich foods like citrus fruits, tomatoes, cabbage, broccoli, spinach, and berries. The body cannot store water-soluble vitamin in large amounts, therefore the supply needs to be replenished daily. The deficiency is also caused by air overexposure or overcooking vitamin C rich foods, excessive vitamin C ingestion during pregnancy and low intake of vitamin C during periods of high stress on the human body. Stress depletes the body’s tissues of vitamin C. Slide 13: Vitamin D
Vitamin D deficiency generally results from an inadequate dietary intake of vitamin D, or too little exposure to sunlight. The vitamin D deficiency has also been found to occur in overcrowded urban areas. The absence of sunlight or smog limitations inhibits the absorption of the D vitamin.
The Vitamin E deficiency is commonly found in infants and usually results from them having consumed formulas high in polyunsaturated fatty acids that are fortified with iron but not vitamin E. Also, because vitamin E is a fat-soluble vitamin, a deficiency also develops in conditions associated with fat malabsorption, such as cystic fibrosis. Slide 14: Vitamin K
The Vitamin K deficiency is commonly found among newborns within the first few days postpartum. Poor placental transfer of vitamin K to the infant and also inadequate production of vitamin K-producing intestinal flora is the main culprit. The deficiency can also be caused by a prolonged use of drugs, such as antibiotics that destroy normal intestinal bacteria. Additionally, other causes are a decreased bile flow to the small intestine from bile duct obstruction, a malabsorption of vitamin K due to bowel resection, ulcerative colitis, or chronic hepatic disease. The vitamin K deficiency seldom results from an insufficient dietary intake of it. CONCLUSION : CONCLUSION An ancient Chinese proverb says - He who takes medicine and neglects to diet wastes the skill of his doctors. This is true of the modern world where people are addicted to low grade food stuffs like burgers, fries, and other fast food. Nutritional deficiency is common to children as well as adults. Although vitamin deficiency diseases are not as common or as widespread as they once were, they still do exist and they can still cause many of the same problems that they are known for. Proper and consistent vitamin intake work well in eliminating any inadequacies as a result. To address the issue of deficiency, one must consume nutritional supplements which provide all the micro-nutrients required by the body in a balanced form. You can consult your physician for which supplements to take
Here are some vitamins and minerals which are commonly found to be lacking in our diet. WAYS TO PREVENT DEFICIENCY DISEASES : WAYS TO PREVENT DEFICIENCY DISEASES Healthy Diet
Eating fresh fruits and green vegetables is good for the body because it supplies essential minerals and nutrients. Choosing a low glycemic diet is particularly important as it helps to bring one's weight under control. Water is the main constituent of almost all organs, muscles, bones and even the brain. It transports oxygen and nutrients to various parts of the body and throws out wasteproducts and toxins. Sleep: The benefits of sleeping 7-8 hours everyday are usually underestimated. Sleeping rejuvenates tired muscles, skin cells and even nerves. Slide 17: Vitamin AFound in rich quantities in milk and eggs, this vitamin is essential for the health of the eyes. It also strengthens the body's immune system.
This is a vital requirement of the human body. Found in lemons, oranges and other citrus fruits, its deficiency causes bleeding in gums, joint pain and oxidative damage to cells. Slide 18: Kindly think over it and you’ll find that only having snacks kurkure and chocolates are not enough we need to have proper diet to live a healthy and happy life.
THANK YOU Slide 19: CopperThis mineral helps in the production of energy, formation of connective tissues and normal functioning of the brain. Deficiency of copper causes learning and behavioral disabilities.
Essential fatty acids Also known as omega 3 fatty acids, these polyunsaturated fats prevent diseases like arthritis, gall stones, diarrhea, and depression. Foods rich in these fatty acids are cold water fish like salmon and mackerel, walnuts and flax seeds.