Volatile oils

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Volatile oils The soul rejuvenators:

Volatile oils The soul rejuvenators

Definition :

Definition “ These are the mixtures of hydrocarbons & oxygenated compounds that are derived from these hydrocarbons. These hydrocarbons are generally terpenoid derivatives. These terpenoid derivatives are formed by acetate mevalonic acid pathway and are called as “ Eleoptenes ” while oxygenated hydrocarbons portion is derived from shikimic acid pathway and are called as “ stearoptenes ”

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These are the odorous principles majorly found in different plant parts and evaporates upon exposure to air at ordinary temperature hence known as etheral oils . As they produce essence they are also known as essential oils.

History :

History The use of essential/aromatic oils have been reported by many cultures all over the world. The use of volatile oil has been varied from culture to culture i.e. ranging from religious use to healing purposes. Evident use of medicinal plants have been reported from the cave paintings dated before 18000 B.C.E.

Egypt:

Egypt Egyptians were using volatile oils as cosmetics, ointments and oils. At the peak of Egyptian era, priests were the only authorities to use aroma oils. Specific fragrances were dedicated for their deities and their statues.

Indian & Chinese:

Indian & C hinese These culture had been using volatile oils 3000 B.C. Indian traditional system “Ayurveda” prescribes many medicinal plants containing volatile oils. “Yellow Empror’s Book” for internal medicine contains several drugs with essential oils.

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Similarly other civilizations like Greece Roman Arabian Persian European Had used these oils for religious and healing purposes.

Current era:

Current era The use of volatile oils as aromatherapy has earned its fame after establishing the effectiveness of these oils. The term aromatherapy as we know it today was first coined in 1937 by the French chemist and perfumer Rene Maurice Gattefosse . He was not a believer of the natural health movement

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In 1910 he burnt his hand badly in his laboratory and treated his badly burnt hand with pure undiluted lavender oil, which not only immediately eased the pain, but also helped heal the hand without any sign of infection or scar . He also found that minute amounts of essential oils are absorbed by the body and interact with the body chemistry.

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During the second world war, as a result of Gattefosse's experiments, Dr. Jean Valet used essential oils to treat injured soldiers with great success. In the 1950's Marguerite Maury started diluting essential oils in a vegetable carrier oil and massaging it onto the skin using a Tibetan technique which is applied along the nerve endings of the spinal column.

Chemistry:

Chemistry Volatile oils are chemically derived from terpenes (mainly from mono and sesqui terpines ) Mainly soluble in alcohol and other organic solvents but insoluble in water. They have high refractive index and are optically active. These are colourless liquids but when exposed to air or sunlight they become darker due to oxidation.

Terpenoids:

Terpenoids Terpenoids are hydroxycarbons of plant origin with general formula (C 5 H 8 ) n as well as oxygenated, hydroxygenated and dehydrogenated derivatives”. These are naturally occurring compounds that give plants and flowers a fragrance. The term “ terpene ” was given to the compound isolated from terpentine i.e. a volatile liquid isolated from pine trees.

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The term “ terpene ” is used to describe the mixture of isomeric hydrocarbons having the molecular formula C 10 H 16 that occurs in essential oils obtained from trees and plants. Thermal decomposition of terpenoids indicates that t erpenes are made up of two or more “isoprene units” that are joined by head to tail fashion.

Isoprene:

Isoprene Isoprene having the general formula (C 5 H 8 )n also known as hemiterpene. As they are the building blocks for the terpenoids so these can be used for the classification terpenes .

Classification of terpenoids:

Classification of terpenoids These are classified on the basis of number of carbon atoms present in the structure. S.No No. of C- atom Value of n Class 1 10 2 Monoterpenes ( C 10 H 16 ) 2 15 3 Sesquiterpenes (C 15 H 24 ) 3 20 4 Diterpenes (C 20 H 32 ) 4 25 5 Sesterpenes (C 25 H 40 ) 5 30 6 Triterpenes (C 30 H 48 ) 6 40 8 Tetraterpenes (C 40 H 64 ) 7 >40 >8 Polyterpenes (C 5 H 8 )n

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Each class of terpenoids is further classified into subclasses according to number of rings present in the structure e.g. Acyclic terpenoids : open chain structure with no ring. Monocyclic terpenoids : contain one ring in structure. Bicyclic terpenoids : contain two rings in the structure. Tricyclic terpenoids : with three rings in the structure. Tetracyclic terpenoids : with four rings in the structure.

Occurance of volatile oils:

Occurance of volatile oils Naturally these oil pre-exist and are synthesized by the secretory tissue e.g. oil ducts, oil cells or oil glands, sub epidermal tissues, mesophyll of leaves and certain trichomes . But in some cases these oils do not pre-exist and are formed by the decomposition of glycosides e.g. black mustard seeds are odourless but when crushed and water is added it produce strong odour due to the formation of allyl isothiocyanate .

Occurance of volatile oils:

Occurance of volatile oils

External secretory structures (glandular trichomes) :

External secretory structures (glandular trichomes) External secretory structures in plants are called glandular trichomes which can be found on the surface of the plant (such as herbaceous leaves). These are thought to be responsible for the production of chemicals that deter or attract pests or pollinators.

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Glandular trichomes are most commonly found in the Labiateae family. The oil storage capacity varies from species to species and also between trichomes. Biochemical experiments have shown that these volatile oils are synthesized by highly refined enzyme reactions taking place within the plant . Examples of essential oils excreted from trichomes are Basil , Lavender, Oregano , Peppermint, Rosemary, and Spearmint

Internal secretory structures (cavities and ducts) :

Internal secretory structures (cavities and ducts) Secretory cavities and ducts consist of large, intercellular spaces that are formed either by the separation of the walls of neighboring cells, or by the disintegration of cells .

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CAVITIES Cavities occur as spherical spaces and are most commonly found in the Myrtaceae and Rutaceae families. Examples of essential oils with secretory cavities are citrus oils (Grapefruit, Lemon, Lime and Orange), eucalyptus species (Clove bud) and Resin trees (Benzoin and Myrrh ) DUCTS Ducts are more elongated spaces and are most commonly seen in the Pinaceae , Umbelliferae) and Coniferae families. Examples of essential oils with secretory ducts are Caraway , Carrot seed, Fennel and Pine)

Essential oil cells:

Essential oil cells Essential oil cells are found within the plant tissue and are unique from other cells in content and size. They can often be found throughout the plant and are most commonly seen in the families e.g. Lauraceae , Piperaceae, Gramineae and Zingiberaceae. Examples of some common essential oils taken from cells are Black pepper, Cardamom, Cinnamon, Citronella, Ginger, Lemongrass and Nutmeg .

In complex form with other organic compounds:

In complex form with other organic compounds In some cases, volatile oil does not pre-exist, but is formed by decomposition of glycosides.

BLACK MUSTARD:

BLACK MUSTARD Whole black mustard seeds are odorless but upon crushing the seed and adding water to it, a strong odor is produced due to allyl isothiocynate (essential oil of mustard). This occurs due to hydrolysis of glycoside “Sinigrin” by the enzyme “ M yrosin”.

CYANOPHORE GLYCOSIDES:

CYANOPHORE GLYCOSIDES Cyanophore glycoside plant parts are odorless but upon crushing and adding water to them, a strong odor is produced due to benzaldehyde (essential oil of cyanogenetic glycosides). This occurs due to hydrolysis of glycoside “amygdalin and prunasin” by the enzyme “emulsin”.

Biosynthesis of volatile oils:

Biosynthesis of volatile oils

Shikimic acid Pathway:

Shikimic acid Pathway This pathway converts simple carbohydrates into aromatic amino acids i.e. L-phenylalanine, L-tryptophan, L-tyrosine. Shikmic acid is an intermediate product in this pathway and it is present in plants, fungi and bacteria.

Mevalonic acid pathway:

Mevalonic acid pathway Mevalonic acid is a 6-carbon acid which is not active isoprene but forms basic building blocks for isoprene compounds. Mevalonic acid upon phosphorylation is transformed into a phosphrylated isoprene which undergoes subsequential polymerization and form isoprene. All green plants are able to generate linear isoprenoids by this path way.

BIOLOGICAL ROLES OF VOLATILE OILS:

BIOLOGICAL ROLES OF VOLATILE OILS

ATTRACTION TO POLLINATORS AND DISPERSAL AGENT :

ATTRACTION TO POLLINATORS AND DISPERSAL AGENT Insects , like humans, are attracted to specific plants due to its aroma , color and morphology or physical structure. Scent appears to be more ancient than flower color as an attractant to insects . Various insects, including bees, butterflies, and even beetles, are known to be attracted by the aroma of a plant.

ALLELOPATHY:

ALLELOPATHY Allelopathy occurs when a plant releases chemicals/allelochemics (e.g. allelopathic terpenoids, eucalyptol and camphor ) to prevent competing vegetation from growing within its area or zone.

DEFENSE :

DEFENSE Plants, like other living things, need to protect themselves from various types of predators. Plants use terpenoid compounds to deter insects and other animals from approaching them . Shawe pointed out that “insects are very rarely found on peppermint plants and the presence of linalol in the peel of citrus fruits confers resistance to attack by the Caribbean fruit fly .”

PROTECTANT :

PROTECTANT Resins and complex combinations of terpenes are released by some plants and trees, such as evergreens, to act as antimicrobial, antifungal, and antibacterial agents against a wide range of organisms that may threaten the survival of the plants. Compounds such as sesquiterpene lactones found in plants such as feverfew, yarrow, and blessed thistle, have been found to play a strong antimicrobial role as well as a protective role from herbivores.

Therapeutic application of Volatile oils:

Therapeutic application of Volatile oils These are irritant when applied on skin. Improves blood circulation and used in the preparation of lotions and liniments. Act as carminative Act as local anesthetic Reduce secretion of lungs e.g. menthol+ NH 4 Cl syrup used in cough and asthma. Some volatile oils also have antibacterial, antiseptic and antifungal effect. Some volatile oils also have anthelmintic activity.,,

Difference b/w v.oils and fixed oils:

Difference b/w v.oils and fixed oils Volatile oils Fixed oils Volatile at room temperature Not volatilize at room temperature Obtained by distillation Obtained by extraction Leave no spot after evaporation Leave spot after evaporation Can not be saponified Can be saponified Are the mixtures of oleoptenes and stearoptenes Esters of higher fatty acids with glycerols Have high refractive index and optical activity Have low refractive index and optical activity Example: clove oil, peppermint oil Olive oil, corn oil

PRODUCTION OF ESSENTIAL OILS:

Volatile oils can be extracted by following ways PRODUCTION OF ESSENTIAL OILS

Distillation:

Distillation There are three types of distillation used for extraction process Water distillation Water and steam distillation Steam distillation Volatile oils from fresh material are separated by steam distillation while for dried material it is preferred to have hydro distillation .

a. Water distillation:

a. Water distillation This method is applied for those materials that are not destroyed by boiling. T erpentine oil is obtained by this method. Crude terpentine is subjected to distillation chamber along with water and heated until oil reaches to the condensing chamber where it is separated.

b. Water & steam distillation:

b. Water & steam distillation This method is applied for those materials that are not destroyed by direct heat e.g. clove and cinnamon. Grounded drug is mixed with water and steam is passed through this mixture. Steam is generated in another chamber and is directed towards the container having drug. Vapours containing volatile oils are condensed in a condensing chamber.

c. Steam distillation :

c. Steam distillation This method is used for fresh products and in this process no water is used as drug contains sufficient moisture e.g. peppermint and spearmint. Drug is placed on a grid and steam is passed through this fresh plant material which takes away the volatile contents in a condensing chamber.

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SIMPLE STEAM DISTILLATION Plant material is immersed directly in a still filled with water. This is then brought to a boil. Heterogeneous vapours are condensed on a cold surface. Essential oil separates based on difference in density and immiscibility. 1- Steam distillation

SATURATED STEAM DISTILLATION:

Plant does not come into contact with the water rather the steam is passed/injected through the plant material placed on Perforated trays. It is possible to operate under moderate pressure. Advantages: Limits the alteration of the constituents of the oil It shortens the duration of the treatment It conserves energy It can also be conducted on on-line in automated set ups SATURATED STEAM DISTILLATION

HYDRODIFFUSION:

HYDRODIFFUSION Pulses of steam is sent through the plant material at very low pressure from (top to bottom). Advantage: Normally produces a product of high quality Saves time and energy

STEAM DISTILLATION BY MICROWAVES UNDER VACUUM:

STEAM DISTILLATION BY MICROWAVES UNDER VACUUM In this procedure, the plant is heated selectively by microwave radiation in a chamber inside which the pressure is reduced sequentially. Fresh plants require no added water. Advantage: This method is fast, consumes little energy and yields a product which is most often of a higher quality than the traditional steam distillation product.

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Steam distillation

2.Scarification :

2.Scarification This process is used for the extraction of oils from rinds e.g. lemon and orange. As these oils are present in the oil glands located just below the surface of the peel of fruit. Scarification is carried out by three processes Sponge process Ecuelle method Enzymatic hydrolysis

a. Sponge process:

a. Sponge process Fruit is removed by making longitudinal or transverse cuts and peel is immersed in water for short period of time. Operator presses the softener peel from one hand against the sponge on the other hand. Oil glands burst and sponge absorbs the oil which is transferred to a collecting vessel. Turbid liquid containing oil and water is allowed to stand for a short period of time and when oil separates from water it is collected.

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This process is carried out in a cool and darkened room to minimize the harmful effects of heat and light on oil.

b. Ecuelle process :

b. Ecuelle process In this process rinds are ruptured mechanically using numerous pointed projections with rotary movements and oil is collected.

c. Enzymatic hydrolysis:

c. Enzymatic hydrolysis Glycosidic volatile oils e.g. mustard oil and bitter almond oil are obtained by this method. Upon crushing certain material present in the seeds start hydrloysis of glycosides by an enzymatic reaction that yields volatile oils.

3- Soxhlet extraction :

3- Soxhlet extraction Normally a solid material containing some of the desired compound is placed inside a thimble made from thick filter paper, which is loaded into the main chamber of the Soxhlet extractor. The extraction solvent to be used is taken into a distillation flask and the Soxhlet extractor is now placed onto this flask. The Soxhlet is then equipped with a condenser. The solvent is heated to reflux. The solvent vapor travels up a distillation arm, and floods into the chamber housing the thimble of solid. The condenser ensures that any solvent vapor cools, and drips back down into the chamber housing the solid material.

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The chamber containing the solid material is slowly filled with warm solvent. Some of the desired compound will then dissolve in the warm solvent. When the Soxhlet chamber is almost full, the chamber is automatically emptied by a siphon side arm, with the solvent running back down to the distillation flask. The thimble ensures that the rapid motion of the solvent does not transport any solid material to the still pot. This cycle may be allowed to repeat many times, over hours or days. During each cycle, a portion of the non-volatile compound dissolves in the solvent. After many cycles the desired compound is concentrated in the distillation flask.

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1 : Stirrer bar 2 : Still pot 3 : Distillation path 4 : Thimble 5 : Solid 6 : Siphon top 7 : Siphon exit 8 : Expansion adapter 9 : Condenser 10 : Cooling water in 11 : Cooling water out

4.Extraction by non-volatile solvents:

4.Extraction by non-volatile solvents A non volatile solvent like olive oil is used for this process. After saturation with floral oil, sometime this oil is used as flavouring base or subjected to a triple extract. Triple extract process is carried out by agitating olive oil with two or three successive portions of alcohol which dissolves the odorous material and volatile oil is separated by this alcohol.

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There are three methods that are employed for this type of extraction. Enfleurage Maceration Spraying

a. Enfleurage:

a. Enfleurage In this process a fatty layer is prepared in a box and flower petals are spread over it. O dorous material is transferred to the fat layer by imbibition. Exhausted petals are removed by the fresh ones and when fat is saturated required material is extracted by treating with alcohol.

b. Maceration:

b. Maceration This process is also used for volatile oil extraction. Oil is heated over a water bath and flowers are added to it for sometime and when these flowers are exhausted new flowers are added and process repeated untill saturated material is achieved and tripple extract method is used to separate volatile material.

c. Spraying/ Pneumatic method :

c. Spraying/ Pneumatic method In this process flowers are exposed to a current of warm air in a column then warm oil or melted fat is sprayed over them which dissolves most of the material. Oil or fat is then extracted with alcohol.

5.Extraction by volatile solvents:

5.Extraction by volatile solvents In this process flowers are extracted by light petroleum is used as solvent and after completion of process it is distilled at low temperature

6- Extraction by supercritical gases:

6 - Extraction by supercritical gases CO 2 is the main gas used. Disadvantage: Technical constraints High cost of initial investment Advantages: Obtain extracts which are very close in composition to the natural product. It is possible to adjust the selectivity & viscosity etc. by fine tuning the temperature & pressure

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Process: Supercritical Fluid Extraction employs Supercritical CO 2 as the extraction solvent. It is the most modern technique of rendering a true-like produce from raw materials where every other method fails. When carbon dioxide gas is put under high pressure (100 atm ) at slightly above room temperature, a supercritical fluid forms which extracts the typically hydrophobic aromatics from the plants. Lowering the pressure it then turns into gas again and evaporates. As, the gas is non reactive, this only come-and-go between a liquid and a gas attains a more loyal-to-the-plant source extract with no by products of the procedure left in the final product; the essence rendered through this method is called a CO 2 EXTRACT.

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Uses: Initially developed to decaffeinate coffees, prepare hops extracts or to remove nicotine from tobacco, the method is now used to; Prepare spice extracts (ginger, paprika, celery) Specific flavours (black tea, oak wood smoke) Plant oils To produce specified types of a certain product, e.g. thujoneless wormwood oil.

TREATMENTS OF THE OILS:

TREATMENTS OF THE OILS Occasionally it is necessary to decolourize , neutralize or rectify the oils obtained. Steam jet under vacuum Allows for the elimination of smelly or irritating products, and to obtain a final product of desired “profile”. Chromatographic techniques This permits a good separation of the essential oil from non-volatile lipo-philic compounds.

TYPES OF VOLATILE OILS (based on extraction method):

TYPES OF VOLATILE OILS (based on extraction method)

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CONCRETES (solvent extraction) A concrete is made by combining plant materials, the solvent (hexane, a liquid, or ether, a gas) and waxes or resins. Once combined, the solvent is removed by gentle heating in a vacuum (negative pressure environment) and reused. The remaining waxy compound is called the concrete . It is more stable and concentrated than pure essential oils as it is comprised of the wax, resins, and other high molecular weight (heavy) botanical components, as well as the low molecular weight (light) aromatic compounds. Produce a more true-to-nature fragrance Example of concretes include jasmine oil

POMADES (Enfleurage) :

POMADES (Enfleurage) True pomades are (volatile oil) products of a process known as Enfleurage (hot or cold). Enfleurage is used for obtaining aromatic materials from flowers containing volatile oils to produce perfume long after they were cut .

RESINOIDS (extraction with resinous material) :

RESINOIDS (extraction with resinous material) Extraction using resinous botanical material which is a homogeneous mass of non-crystalline character Used in perfumery as fixatives to prolong the effect of a fragrance

ABSOLUTES (remain after alcoholic extraction from concrete/pomade):

ABSOLUTES (remain after alcoholic extraction from concrete/pomade) An absolute is made by taking a concrete/pomade and melting it by warming with some alcohol and then stirring it. The essential oil, some waxes, fixed oils and fats then dissolve in the alcohol . This alcohol mixture is then distilled in a vacuum to remove the alcohol, and the remaining substance is an 'absolute '. An absolute is the most concentrated form of fragrance (and the most costly), and is mostly used in the perfume industry.

Classification of volatile oils:

Classification of volatile oils Volatile oils are classified on the basis of functional groups. Groups Drugs Hydrocarbon V.oils Turpetine oil, cubeb Alcoholic V.oils Peppermint oil, cardamom and coriander oils Aldehydic V.oils Bitter orange peel, lemon peel, sweet orange peel, cinnamon Ketonic V.oils Camphor, spearmint, caraway, buchu Phenolic v.oils Clove oil, thyme Phenolic ether V.oil Fennel, anise, nutmeg Oxide V.oil Eucalyptus, cardamom and chenopodium oil Ester V.oils Rosemarry and garlic

Alcoholic volatile oils:

Alcoholic volatile oils Representative of this class include Peppermint Cardamom Coriander

1. Peppermint :

1. Peppermint B.O. M entha piperita Family: labiatae P.U. dried/ fresh leaves and flowering tops. Constituents: volatile oil contain 78% of free menthol and up to 20% menthol combined as esters, resins. Menthol Limonene

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Medicinal uses: Flavouring agent Carminative GIT stimulant Dyspepsia Flatulence Colic Peppermint water and peppermint spirit are official preparations from B.P. Peppermint oil also possesses local anaesthetic action

Cardamom :

Cardamom B.O. Elettaria cardamomum P.U. Dried ripened seeds Family. Zingiberaceae Constituents : volatile oil named cardamom oil contains terpinol , terpinyl acetate, borneol and fixed oils.

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Medicinal uses Flavouring agent Carminative GIT stimulant Used in dyspepsia and flatulence

Coriander:

Coriander B.O. Coriander sativum P.U. fresh leaves and dries seeds Family. Umbellifereae Constituents: volatile oil contain coriandiol , d- pinene , fixed oil and Ca -oxalate.

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Medicinal uses: Flavouring agent Carminative Stimulant

Phenolic volatile oils:

Phenolic volatile oils Representatives include C love t hyme

a. Clove:

a. Clove B.O. Eugenia caryophyllus P.U. dried flowering buds Family: Myrtaceae Constituents: volatile oil contain eugenol , acetyleugenol , gallotamic acid and carvacrol . Uses: stimulant, carminative, irritant, condiment and local anaesthetic .

b. Thyme :

b. Thyme B.O. Thymus vulgaris P.U. dried leaves and flowering tops Family: Labiatae Constituents: thymol , carvacrol , cymene, thymene and pinene Uses: anti-spasmodic, carminative, stimulant and flavouring agent

Hydrocarbon volatile oils:

Hydrocarbon volatile oils Representatives include Cubeb Turpentine

Cubeb :

Cubeb B.O: P iper cubeba P.U: dried fully grown unripened fruit Constituents: sesquiterpines , resins, cubebic acid, cubebin Medicinal Uses: Diuretic Expectorant Antiseptic Also used in the treatment of gonorrheae , cystitis and in piles.

Turpentine oil:

Turpentine oil B.O. Pinus longifolia , Pinus excelsa P.U. oleo- resin obtained from plant Constituents: turpentine oil is a colourless liquid with characteristic odour. It contains monocyclic monoterpenes as dipentene and methylcarbachol while di-cyclic monoterpenes as α - pinene & camphene.

Production and commerce:

Production and commerce It is a physiological product of pine. It is secreted by the plant tissues in the resin ducts. These ducts are located beneath the cambium in the sap of wood that is marked by distinct layers of secretory cells, which are called as resinogenesis layers. There are two methods for the collection of resin Box method Cup & gutter method

Box method:

Box method It is very old method, which was previously used in many countries. A deep cut is made in the trunk of the tree and a box is placed beneath it then blaze cuts are made on the trunk of tree. The length of which was increased from time to time . The oleoresin, which was collected in the box, was removed at intervals with a dipper and sent in barrels to the distillery . This method is often causing destruction of most trees.

Cup & gutter method :

Cup & gutter method T his method with different modifications is used in different countries. A series of ‘V’ shaped incisions are made in the trunk of the tree of a distance of about one-foot. The bark and young wood being removed so that a blaze or a groove is formed in the trunk. This is usually done early in the year. At the base of incision and aluminium earthen ware cup is fixed in the trunk and two strips of galvanized iron or aluminium are inserted about to deflect the flow of oleoresin into the cup ..

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The length of the blaze is increased and the cups are moved higher up the trees and now grooves are started with the older ones. As the cups become filled, their contents are emptied into the barrels, which are delivered to the distillery where the turpentine oil is removed by steam distillation, and the resin become rosin

Medicinal uses :

Medicinal uses Most commonly not used internally but People sometimes inhale vapours of turpentine oil to reduce the chest congestion Externally used as counter irritant & mild anti-septic Used as rubifecient in lotions applied to the skin for joint pain, muscle pain, nerve pain as it may cause warmth and redness that relieves pain in the tissue underneath . Also used as solvent for waxes in the production of synthetic camphor, shoe polishes, furniture polishes, soap and cosmetics and also as a paint solvent.

RECTIFIED OIL OF TURPENTINE:

RECTIFIED OIL OF TURPENTINE Rectified turpentine oil is obtained by distillation from an aqueous solution of NaOH and terpentine . Terpinol oil is formed by the action of nitric acid on rectified turpentine oil in the presence of alcohol. Rectified turpentine oil and terpinol both are used internally as diuretic, urinary antiseptic, antihermatic , and expectorant.

Phenolic ether volatile oils:

Phenolic ether volatile oils Representatives include Anise Fennel Nutmeg

1. Anise :

1. Anise B.O. Pimpinella anisum Family: Umbelifereae P.U. dried ripened fruit Constituents: volatile oil contain 80% of anethole , safrole and fixed oil Uses: carminative, stimulant, flavouring agent

2. Fennel :

2. Fennel B.O. F oeniculum vulgare Family: Umbellifereae P.U. dried ripened seeds Constituents: volatile oil majorly containming anethole and fenchone . Medicinal uses: carminative Stimulant Flavouring agent

3. Nutmeg :

3. Nutmeg B.O. Myristica fragrans P.U. dried ripened seeds Family: Myristicaceae Constituents: volatile oil containing myristicine , safrol , pinene , camphor and eugenol . Uses: Flavouring agent, stimulant and carminative.

Oxide volatile oil:

Oxide volatile oil Representative include Eucalyptus

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B.O. Eucalyptus globolus P.U. dried leaves Family : Myrtaceae Constituent: contains colourless or pale yellow oil having aromatic odour that contain 70% of cineol, resins, tannins and eucalyptic acid. Uses: expectorant, rubefacient, anti-septic, decongestant and diaphoretic

Ester volatile oil :

Ester volatile oil Representative include Rose marry

Rose Mary:

Rose Mary B.O. R osmarinus officinalis P.U. flowering tops Family: Lamiaceae Constituents: volatile oils and rosmarinic acid , camphor, caffeic acid, betulinic acid, rosmaridiphenol. Uses: soap & perfumery industry, in liniment, memory enhancer, potent anti-oxidants,

Miscellaneous :

Miscellaneous Representatives include Anethum

Anethum :

Anethum B.O. Anethum graveolens P.U. dried leaves and seeds Family: Apiaceae Constituents: contains 3-4% of volatile oils which contains carvone and limonene. Uses: Carminative and flavouring agent

Aldehyde Volatile oils:

Aldehyde Volatile oils Representative include Cinnamon Sweet orange Bitter orange Lemon

Cinnamon :

Cinnamon B.O. Cinnamomum loureirii P.U. dried inner bark of shoot Family: L auraceae

Commerce and Production:

Commerce and Production Young shoots of plant are cut down and divided into small parts of few inches that are cultivated and are allowed to form shoots from which adventitious buds arise. These buds are developed and shoots gain length of about 2m , these are cut down during rainy season and are brought into shade where leaves and other twigs are removed.

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Outer bark is scrapped off with a sharp knife and inner bark is removed with care from hard wood as quills. These quills are then dried under sun light for 3 days and for 3 days in shade, this will turn the original white colour of quill into yellowish brown colour.

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Constituents : volatile oil contain cinnamic acid, cinnamaldehyde , caryophylline , resins, tannins, mucilages and Ca -oxalate Medicinal uses: flavouring agent, carminative, diuretic Cinnamic acid cinnamaldehyde

Sweet, bitter orange & lemon peel:

Sweet, bitter orange & lemon peel Sweet orange peel B.O. Citrus sinensis Bitter orange peel B.O. Citrus aurantium Lemon peel B.O. Citrus limon

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P.U. Dried outer part of pericarp from ripened fruit Constituents: volatile oil, vitamin C, limonene, flavonoids , glycosides, citral , citronellol and Ca -oxalate. Lemon peel oil also contain hisperidine Uses: carminative, aromatic and flavouring agent Citronella

Ketone volatile oils:

Ketone volatile oils Representatives include Camphor Caraway Buchu Spearmint

Camphor :

Camphor B.O. C innamomum camphora P.U. wood of stem and root is used for the distillation of camphor Constituents: The main chemical components are a- pinene , camphene, b- pinene , sabinene , phellandrene , limonene, 1,8-cineole, y- terpinene , p-cymene, terpinolene,geraniol , safrole , cinnamaldehyde , methyl cinnamate and eugenol .

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The brown and yellow camphor oil has a very high safrol content, with yellow having between 10 - 20 % and the brown having 80%. These two oils are considered toxic, as well as carcinogenic.

Production and commerce :

Production and commerce Maximum yield of camphor is obtained from the trees that are 50 years old. Young branches and twigs are chopped off which are placed in a wooden still. It is heated in an iron pan that is placed under the wooden still. Second end of the wooden still with bomber tube that opens into small tubes made up of wood.

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One tube is placed over the other. Small wood chips are treated with steam. Camphor is sublimed and liquid volatile oil is passed away into the receiver. Camphor is purified by treating it with lime and charcoal. It is then resublimed into large chambers to form camphor. Hydraulic pressure is used to make camphor blocks.

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Medicinal uses: The therapeutic properties of camphor oil are analgesic , antidepressant, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, diuretic , febrifuge , anti-hypertensive , insecticide, laxative, rubefacient, stimulant , vermifuge. Used in cosmetics

b. Spearmint :

b. Spearmint B.O. Mentha spicata P.U. dried/fresh leaves and flowering tops Constituents. Carvone , limonene, phellandrenes and esters. Uses: carminative, flavouring agent

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Carvone Limonene

c. Caraway :

c. Caraway B.O. C arum carvi P.U. dried ripened fruit Constituents. Volatile oil contain, carvone , dihydro carvone , limonene, fixed oils and tannins Uses. Stimulant, carminative and flavouring agent

d. Buchu:

d. Buchu B.O. Agathosma betulina (previously) Barosma betulina , P.U. dried leaves Constituents: volatile oil with peppermint like odour, contains diosphenol , limonene, menthone and glycosides. Uses: dis- infectant , cystitis, prostitis , diuretic , gonorrheae and leucorrheae

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