child labour--threat to society

Category: Education

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Slide 1:


Concern by:

Concern by Presented by – XB —GROUP--A Arko pal Kamaliya Roy Sushrita Lanka Ujjawal sengupta Rohit singh We thank madam chandra prabha Bhatia for allotting this thought provoking topic




WHAT IS CHILD LABOUR ? Since time immemorial children have been exploited in the society as child labour. Child labour refers to the employment of children at regular and sustained labour. Child labour was utilized to varying extents through most of history, but entered public dispute with the advent of universal schooling, with changes in working conditions during the industrial revolution, and with the emergence of the concepts of workers' and children's rights.

Children , especially of poor families who were in need of money generally to pay off the debts were forced to do labouring works in order to earn a ‘proper’ living with the money they receive by doing the hard works.:

Children , especially of poor families who were in need of money generally to pay off the debts were forced to do labouring works in order to earn a ‘proper’ living with the money they receive by doing the hard works.


AGE RESTRICTIONS The first general laws against child labour, the Factory Acts , passed in Britain didn’t allow children younger than nine to work and the work day of youth under the age of 18 was limited to twelve hours. This minimum age depends on the country and the type of work involved. States ratifying the Minimum Age Convention adopted by the International Labour Organization in 1973, have adopted minimum ages varying from 14 to 16. Child labour laws have set the minimum age to work in an establishment without parents’ consent and restrictions, as in India 14 years and in U.S 16 years.

Slide 7:

The bangle making is in process…..

Slide 8:

Child labour can also be defined as the full-time employment of children who are under a minimum legal age. During the Industrial Revolution, children as young as four were employed in production factories with dangerous, and often fatal, working conditions. It is now considered by wealthy countries to be a human rights violation, and is outlawed, while some poorer countries may allow or tolerate child labour. This practice is still common in that section of the society where school leaving age is lower. UNICEF estimated 250 million children aged 05- 14 in child labour worldwide, excluding child domestic labour.


TORTURED WORKS Child labour is still common in some parts of the world. Children as young as three were put to work. The most rejected forms of child labour includes - the military use of children child prostitution However less controversial are often treated as legal with some restrictions. These are the works of – child actors child singers agricultural works; and owning a business- out of school hours

Slide 10:

Children used as rag pickers in the slum. The pic. shows a small child of about 8 yrs collecting and recycling garbage in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, in 2006

Slide 11:

Child Labour also includes factory work, mining, quarrying, helping in the parents' business, or doing odd jobs. Other children are forced to do tedious and repetitive jobs such as assembling boxes, polishing shoes, stocking a store's products, or cleaning. However, rather than in factories and sweetshops, most child labour occurs in the informal sector, "selling many things on the streets, at work in agriculture or hidden away in houses — far from the reach of official labour inspectors and from media scrutiny."

Slide 12:

The child is repairing a tyre… Isn’t this a really odd work for such a young child???

Slide 13:

Children also worked as errand boys, crossing sweepers, shoe blacks, or selling matches, flowers and other cheap goods. Some children undertook work as apprentices to respectable trades, such as building or as domestic servants (there were over 120,000 domestic servants in London in the mid-18th century). Some children work as guides for tourists, sometimes combined with bringing in business for shops and restaurants (where they may also work as waiters).

The working hours:

The working hours Working hours were long. Builders worked : 64 hours a week in summer and 52 in winter, WHILE Domestic servants worked: 80 hour weeks. Many children (and adults) worked 16 hour days. As early as 1802 and 1819 Factory Acts were passed to regulate the working hours of workhouse children in factories and cotton mills to 12 hours per day. These acts were largely ineffective.

Slide 15:

Young girl working on a loom in Aït Benhaddou, Morocco in May 2008. Quite a hard work, Isn’t it ???

Slide 16:

After radical agitation, by for example : the "Short Time Committees" in 1831, a Royal Commission recommended in 1833 that children aged 11–18 should work a maximum of twelve hours per day, children aged 9–11 a maximum of eight hours, and children under the age of nine were no longer permitted to work. This act however only applied to the textile industry, and further agitation led to another act in 1847 limiting both adults and children to ten hour working days.

Slide 17:

Child workers on a farm under the raising heat of the sun on an may afternoon in Maine, October 1940.

The cause:

The cause The primary cause of child labour is parental poverty. The children of the poor were expected to help towards the family budget, often working long hours in dangerous jobs for low pay, earning 10-20% of an adult male's wage. In 19th-century Great Britain, one-third of poor families were without a breadwinner, as a result of death or abandonment, obliging many children to work from a young age.

Slide 19:

Child labourer carrying and delivering of food items from one place to another, New Jersey, 1910. Surprisingly it’s winter…..

The effect:

The effect In Child Labour small children starts doing labour work which does not allow the children to enjoy their carefree childhood. Moreover engaging children in labouring works doesn’t give those children an educational opportunity. This later results in the declining of literacy rates in that particular country. The children gets ill treated by those people whom they work for. The children doesn’t get proper food which affects their health

Slide 21:

A lot of hard work by the children who are engaged in making the buildings for economic developments

Slide 22:

The helpless children also gets beaten up by their so- called “masters” if those children are unable to gather the noticeable amount of money. The children do not get well paid which results in the continuous work of long hours which lasts for a long period of years. Those children are unable to contribute to the country’s economic development individually. If a society constitutes of more children engaged in child labour the society cannot progress in the long run.

Slide 23:

Wasim, a child labourer, works at a tea stall - cleaning glasses and serving customers, in Indore, India.( 9 July 2010)

Slide 24:

A lot of machinery work but still by the children in the glass blowing factory….

In our country : india:

In our country : india In third world country as INDIA child labour is manifested in multi – ferious small scale industries like: Handloom; fire works; wax making; basket weaving; working on hand looms; bangle and glass blowing; recycling industries - as rag pickers; dhaba, restaurants, domestic servants.

Slide 26:

In 1997 , research indicated that the number of child labourers in the silk-weaving industry in the district of Kanchipuram in India exceeded 40,000. This included children who were bonded labourers to loom owners. Rural Institute for Development Education undertook many activities to improve the situation of child labourers. Working collaboratively, RIDE brought down the number of child labourers to less than 4,000 by 2007.

Slide 27:

For next few weeks, government, media and NGOs were in a frenzy over the exuberant no. of young boys, as young as 5–6 year olds, released from bondage. This rescue operation opened the eyes of the world to the menace of child labour operating right under the nose of the largest democracy in the whole world. In the following years, Delhi's NGOs, came together with the Delhi Government and formulated an Action Plan for Rescue and Rehabilitation of child labour.

The present status:

The present status The incidence of child labour in the world decreased from 25 to 10 percent between 1960 and 2003, according to the World Bank. Child labour accounts for 22% of the workforce in Asia, 32% in Africa, 17% in Latin America, 1% in US, Canada, Europe and other wealthy nations. The proportion of child labourers varies a lot among countries and even regions inside those countries. Child labour is still widely used today in many countries, including India and Bangladesh. CACL estimated that there are between 70 and 80 million child labourers in India.

Slide 29:

Two girls protesting child labour (by calling it child slavery) in the 1909 New York City Labour Day parade .



The prediction:

The prediction Between today and the year 2020, the vast majority of new workers, citizens and consumers whose skills and requirements will construct the world’s economy and society and they will come from the developing countries. During this 20 years, some 730 million people will join the world’s workforce and 90% of these new workers, will be from developing nations.

Slide 32:

It’s a matter of serious concern that how many of these workers will have had to work at an early age destroying their health and hampering their education……….



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