urbanisation

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URBANISATION AND INDUSTRIALISATION Made By :- Riya Garg X – D 31

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AND INDUSTRIALISATION ? WHAT IS URBANISATION Urbanisation is the process in which the number of people living in cities increases compared with the number of people living in rural areas. A country is considered to be urbanised when over 50% of its population lives in urban places. Industrialisation is the process of social and economic change that transforms a human group from an agrarian society into an industrial one. It is a part of a wider modernisation process.

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A few beautiful lines said by William Morris to found the Society for the Preservation of Ancient Buildings, and led him, as well, to begin his  The Earthly Paradise   : Forget six counties overhung with smoke,  Forget the snorting steam and piston stroke, Forget the spreading of the hideous town;  Think rather of the pack-horse on the down,  And dream of London, small, and white, and clean,  The clear Thames bordered by its gardens green. . .  While nigh the thronged wharf Geoffrey Chaucer's pen  Moves over bills of lading. . . Let’s go into the past and endavour the story of URBANISATION IN LONDON INTRODUCTION

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URBANISATION IN LONDON The urbanization of London (and of other English cities) continued and intensified during the Industrial Revolution, and on through the nineteenth century. In 1854, Nathaniel Hawthorne, at the time the American consul at Liverpool, recorded this melancholy entry in one of his English notebooks: "The following is a legend inscribed on the inner margin of a curious old box:‹'From Birkenhead into Hillbree/ A squirrel might leap from tree to tree.' I do not know where Hillbree is; but all round Birkenhead a squirrel would scarcely find a single tree to climb upon. All is pavement and brick buildings now."  From the middle ages on, and well into the nineteenth century, much of London was violent and squalid. During the eighteenth century, the poor and the unemployed frequently occupied themselves, as Hogarth demonstrated, by drinking themselves into insensibility; one doctor reported that one of every eight Londoners drank themselves to death. In 1742 London had one gin-shop for every seventy-five inhabitants. During the 1740s the English consumed 7 million gallons of gin, as opposed to 1 million gallons during the 1780s, when it was heavily taxed.

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EFFECTS OF URBANIZATION ADVERSE EFFECTS : Land insecurity - Slums are usually located on land, which are not owned by the slum dwellers. They can be evicted at any time by the landowners. • Poor living conditions - Crowding and lack of sanitation are main problems. This contributes to outbreak of diseases. Utilities such as water, electricity and sewage disposal are also scarce. • Unemployment - Since the number of people competing for jobs is more than jobs available, unemployment is an inevitable problem. • Crime - Slum conditions make maintenance of law and order difficult. Patrolling of slums is not a priority of law enforcing officers. Unemployment and poverty force people into anti-social activities. Slums become a breding ground for criminal activities. BENEFITS OF URBANISATION: Though urbanization has drawbacks, it has its benefits. • Efficiency - Cities are extremely efficient. Less effort is needed to supply basic amenities such as fresh water and electricity. Research and recycling programs are possible only in cities. In most cities flats are in vogue today. Many people can be

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accommodated within a small land area. • Convenience - Access to education, health, social services and cultural activities is readily available to people in cities than in villages. Life in cities is much more advanced, sophisticated and comfortable, compared to life in villages. Cities have advanced communication and transport networks. • Concentration of resources - Since major human settlements were established near natural resources from ancient times, a lot of resources are available in and around cities. A lot of facilities to exploit these resources also exist only in cities. THANKS FOR BEING EXCELLENT AUDIENCE

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