Teaching English Consonants

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TEACHING ENGLISH CONSONANTS : 

VICTOR GAO, Teaching English Consonants Zhejiang Education Institute TEACHING ENGLISH CONSONANTS VICTOR GAO ZHEJIANG EDUCATION INSTITUTE

Slide 2: 

VICTOR GAO, Teaching English Consonants Zhejiang Education Institute Sagittal section of the vocal tract text ©J.J. Ohala, September 2001

????? : 

VICTOR GAO, Teaching English Consonants Zhejiang Education Institute ????? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ??

???? Speech Organs : 

VICTOR GAO, Teaching English Consonants Zhejiang Education Institute ???? Speech Organs

???? : 

VICTOR GAO, Teaching English Consonants Zhejiang Education Institute ???? ?? ?? ?? ???/??? ?? ?? ?? ?? ??

Slide 6: 

VICTOR GAO, Teaching English Consonants Zhejiang Education Institute Description of English consonants

English consonants : 

VICTOR GAO, Teaching English Consonants Zhejiang Education Institute English consonants ??????

Slide 8: 

VICTOR GAO, Teaching English Consonants Zhejiang Education Institute p b m t d n K g English consonants ?????? ???? ???? ?? ?? ?? ??? ??? ??

Slide 9: 

VICTOR GAO, Teaching English Consonants Zhejiang Education Institute p b m t d n K g ???? ?????? ???? ???? ?? ?? ?? ??? ??? ??

?? / m / : 

VICTOR GAO, Teaching English Consonants Zhejiang Education Institute ?? / m /

Slide 11: 

VICTOR GAO, Teaching English Consonants Zhejiang Education Institute p b m t d n K g ???? ?????? ???? ???? ?? ?? ?? ??? ??? ??

Slide 12: 

VICTOR GAO, Teaching English Consonants Zhejiang Education Institute p b m t d n K g ???? ?????? ???? ???? ?? ?? ?? ??? ??? ??

Slide 13: 

VICTOR GAO, Teaching English Consonants Zhejiang Education Institute p b m t d n K g ???? ?????? ???? ???? ?? ?? ?? ??? ??? ??

Slide 14: 

VICTOR GAO, Teaching English Consonants Zhejiang Education Institute Description of English consonants

??? / t, d / : 

VICTOR GAO, Teaching English Consonants Zhejiang Education Institute ??? / t, d /

??????? / t / : 

VICTOR GAO, Teaching English Consonants Zhejiang Education Institute ??????? / t /

??? / t, d / : 

VICTOR GAO, Teaching English Consonants Zhejiang Education Institute ??? / t, d /

Slide 18: 

VICTOR GAO, Teaching English Consonants Zhejiang Education Institute p b m t d n K g ???? ?????? ???? ???? ?? ?? ?? ??? ??? ??

Slide 19: 

VICTOR GAO, Teaching English Consonants Zhejiang Education Institute p b m t d n K g ???? ?????? ???? ???? ?? ?? ?? ??? ??? ??

Slide 20: 

VICTOR GAO, Teaching English Consonants Zhejiang Education Institute p b m t d n k g ???? ?????? ???? ???? ?? ?? ?? ??? ??? ??

??? / k, g / : 

VICTOR GAO, Teaching English Consonants Zhejiang Education Institute ??? / k, g /

Slide 22: 

VICTOR GAO, Teaching English Consonants Zhejiang Education Institute p b m t d n K g ???? ?????? ???? ???? ?? ?? ?? ??? ??? ??

Slide 23: 

VICTOR GAO, Teaching English Consonants Zhejiang Education Institute p b m t d n k g ???? ?????? ???? ???? ?? ?? ?? ??? ??? ??

Slide 24: 

VICTOR GAO, Teaching English Consonants Zhejiang Education Institute p b m t d n K g ???? ?????? ???? ???? ?? ?? ?? ??? ??? ??

Slide 25: 

VICTOR GAO, Teaching English Consonants Zhejiang Education Institute p b m t d n K g ???? ?????? ???? ???? ?? ?? ?? ??? ??? ??

Slide 26: 

VICTOR GAO, Teaching English Consonants Zhejiang Education Institute p b m t d n K g ???? ?????? ???? ???? ?? ?? ?? ??? ??? ??

Slide 27: 

VICTOR GAO, Teaching English Consonants Zhejiang Education Institute p b m t d n K g ???? ?????? ???? ???? ?? ?? ?? ??? ??? ??

???? : 

VICTOR GAO, Teaching English Consonants Zhejiang Education Institute ????

Slide 29: 

VICTOR GAO, Teaching English Consonants Zhejiang Education Institute ????? / p, b /

Slide 30: 

VICTOR GAO, Teaching English Consonants Zhejiang Education Institute ????? /k, g/

???? / / : 

VICTOR GAO, Teaching English Consonants Zhejiang Education Institute ???? / / [N] The velar nasal occurs only syllable finally; it cannot occur in syllable initial position

VOICE ONSET TIME values : 

VICTOR GAO, Teaching English Consonants Zhejiang Education Institute VOICE ONSET TIME values Voice Onset Time can take various values (measured in milliseconds, ms), but they fall into three main categories

??????????? : 

VICTOR GAO, Teaching English Consonants Zhejiang Education Institute English voiceless stops are aspirated or unaspirated, depending on context They are aspirated word-initially e.g. pat [ph] and when they are in the beginning of stressed syllables; potato [th] They are unaspirated when preceded by /s/; e.g. spat /p/ Or in the beginning of an unstressed syllable; e.g. paper /p/ ???????????

Slide 34: 

VICTOR GAO, Teaching English Consonants Zhejiang Education Institute Voiced stops (and affricates) are not fully voiced ??????? at the end of an utterance; c.f. my /d/a/d/ when utterance initial; e.g. b/ye before a voiceless consonant; e.g. my da /d/ sings So, how do we tell voiced and voiceless consonants apart? Vowels are longer before voiced stops (and other voiced consonants); e.g. bead, beat, bid, bit ????????????

Slide 35: 

VICTOR GAO, Teaching English Consonants Zhejiang Education Institute Voiced stops (and affricates) are not fully voiced ??????? So, how do we tell voiced and voiceless consonants apart? Vowels are longer before voiced stops (and other voiced consonants); e.g. bead, beat, bid, bit ????????????

Slide 36: 

VICTOR GAO, Teaching English Consonants Zhejiang Education Institute All stops are unreleased before other stops; e.g. ripped /p°/ Voiceless stops can be pronounced with a glottal stop /?/ in syllable final position; e.g. right /?t/ The glottal stop may replace the oral articulation altogether /t/ is pronounced as /d/ when before [n]; e.g. kitten /dn/ ???????

Slide 37: 

VICTOR GAO, Teaching English Consonants Zhejiang Education Institute English has nasal consonants in three place of articulation Bilabial /m/ mat Alveolar /n/ nap Velar / / sang *Also known as engma ??

Slide 38: 

VICTOR GAO, Teaching English Consonants Zhejiang Education Institute ??? ???? ???? ? ? ? ? ???? Z

Slide 39: 

VICTOR GAO, Teaching English Consonants Zhejiang Education Institute ??? ???? ???? ? ? ? ? ???? Z sound

??? / f, v / : 

VICTOR GAO, Teaching English Consonants Zhejiang Education Institute ??? / f, v /

Slide 41: 

VICTOR GAO, Teaching English Consonants Zhejiang Education Institute ??? ???? ???? ? ? ? ? ???? Z sound

??? / / : 

VICTOR GAO, Teaching English Consonants Zhejiang Education Institute ??? / /

Slide 43: 

VICTOR GAO, Teaching English Consonants Zhejiang Education Institute ??? ???? ???? ? ? ? ? ???? Z so

??? / s,z / : 

VICTOR GAO, Teaching English Consonants Zhejiang Education Institute ??? / s,z /

??? / s, z / : 

VICTOR GAO, Teaching English Consonants Zhejiang Education Institute ??? / s, z /

Slide 46: 

VICTOR GAO, Teaching English Consonants Zhejiang Education Institute ??? ???? ???? ? ? ? ? ???? Z

??? / / : 

VICTOR GAO, Teaching English Consonants Zhejiang Education Institute ??? / /

Slide 48: 

VICTOR GAO, Teaching English Consonants Zhejiang Education Institute ??? ???? ???? ? ? ? ? ???? Z

??? : 

VICTOR GAO, Teaching English Consonants Zhejiang Education Institute ??? ??

Slide 50: 

VICTOR GAO, Teaching English Consonants Zhejiang Education Institute Labiodental – /f/ /v/ fine vine Dental – /t/ /d/ thigh thy Alveolar – /s/ /z/ sit zit Post-alveolar – /s/ /z/* shape beige Glottal – /h/ heat ?????

/ f / & / v / ??? : 

VICTOR GAO, Teaching English Consonants Zhejiang Education Institute / f / & / v / ???

/ / & / / ??? : 

VICTOR GAO, Teaching English Consonants Zhejiang Education Institute / / & / / ???

/ s / / z / ??? : 

VICTOR GAO, Teaching English Consonants Zhejiang Education Institute / s / / z / ???

/ // / ??? : 

VICTOR GAO, Teaching English Consonants Zhejiang Education Institute / // / ??? Slight lip rounding may be used by some speakers

????? : 

VICTOR GAO, Teaching English Consonants Zhejiang Education Institute ????? English has only Post-alveolar affricates / / / / child, judge These are produced by forming a closure as for an alveolar stop (/t/d/) but at the same time the front of the tongue is also raised towards the hard palate; the closure is release gradually so that friction occurs between the blade/front of the tongue and the alveolar/front palatal region of the palate Although affricates can be considered as a sequence of two speech sounds, a stop and a fricative, in English we know that they behave as one unit (not as a cluster)

Slide 56: 

VICTOR GAO, Teaching English Consonants Zhejiang Education Institute ??? tr dr ts dz ????,?? ???,?? ??,?? English consonants

Slide 57: 

VICTOR GAO, Teaching English Consonants Zhejiang Education Institute ??? tr dr ts dz ????,?? ???,?? ??,?? English consonants

Slide 58: 

VICTOR GAO, Teaching English Consonants Zhejiang Education Institute ??? tr dr ts dz ????,?? ???,?? ??,?? English consonants

Slide 59: 

VICTOR GAO, Teaching English Consonants Zhejiang Education Institute ??? tr dr ts dz ????,?? ???,?? ??,?? English consonants

Slide 60: 

VICTOR GAO, Teaching English Consonants Zhejiang Education Institute ???? Manner & position reference English consonants

Slide 61: 

VICTOR GAO, Teaching English Consonants Zhejiang Education Institute ???? Manner & position reference English consonants j j ??????????1/4

Slide 62: 

VICTOR GAO, Teaching English Consonants Zhejiang Education Institute ???? Manner & position reference English consonants j j ??????????1/4

/j/ vs. /w/ : 

VICTOR GAO, Teaching English Consonants Zhejiang Education Institute /j/ vs. /w/

Slide 64: 

VICTOR GAO, Teaching English Consonants Zhejiang Education Institute /j/ is similar to /i:/ (the vowel of beat), but very short; it’s exact place of articulation depends on the following vowel *American symbol: [y] The palatal approximant /j/

Slide 65: 

VICTOR GAO, Teaching English Consonants Zhejiang Education Institute The production of the labial-velar approximant involves two wide constrictions: one at the lips, which are rounded (hence labial), and one at the velum, with the back of the tongue being raised (hence, velar) /w/ is an example of double articulation Labial-velar approximant /w/

Slide 66: 

VICTOR GAO, Teaching English Consonants Zhejiang Education Institute ???? Manner & position reference English consonants j j

Slide 67: 

VICTOR GAO, Teaching English Consonants Zhejiang Education Institute English clear /l/

Slide 68: 

VICTOR GAO, Teaching English Consonants Zhejiang Education Institute English dark / l /

Slide 69: 

VICTOR GAO, Teaching English Consonants Zhejiang Education Institute Velarization is a secondary articulation, i.e. a constriction that is added to the primary constriction The secondary constriction must be less narrow than the primary one to count as secondary articulation If the two constrictions are of the same type, we talk of double articulation (not secondary articulation) What is a velarized /l/?

Slide 70: 

VICTOR GAO, Teaching English Consonants Zhejiang Education Institute Comparing clear & dark / l /s

Slide 71: 

VICTOR GAO, Teaching English Consonants Zhejiang Education Institute Velarized /l/ occurs at the end of syllables; e.g. real and belt both have /l/ Clear /l/ is the articulation used when /l/ is found at the beginning of a syllable However, in many dialects of American English velarized /l/ is the only pronunciation of /l/ Where does /l/ occur?

Slide 72: 

VICTOR GAO, Teaching English Consonants Zhejiang Education Institute ???? Manner & position reference English consonants j j

Slide 73: 

VICTOR GAO, Teaching English Consonants Zhejiang Education Institute The exact articulation of /r/ varies from dialect to dialect In most varieties of British English and many varieties of American English, /r/ is a voiced post-alveolar approximant /r/ There are however American English dialects in which /r/ is produced as a voiced retroflex approximant, /r/ Also, for a fair number of speakers the articulation of /r/ involves some degree of lip rounding The /r/ phoneme

Slide 74: 

VICTOR GAO, Teaching English Consonants Zhejiang Education Institute Another American /r/ U Maryland, Vocal Tract Visualization Lab A retroflex /r/

Slide 75: 

VICTOR GAO, Teaching English Consonants Zhejiang Education Institute Place of articulation for [tr]/[dr] /r/ after an alveolar stop

Slide 76: 

VICTOR GAO, Teaching English Consonants Zhejiang Education Institute A post-alveolar /r/

???? : 

VICTOR GAO, Teaching English Consonants Zhejiang Education Institute ???? Light Right

Slide 78: 

VICTOR GAO, Teaching English Consonants Zhejiang Education Institute ???? Manner & position reference English consonants

Slide 79: 

VICTOR GAO, Teaching English Consonants Zhejiang Education Institute ???? ??????????? English consonants

?????/ h / : 

VICTOR GAO, Teaching English Consonants Zhejiang Education Institute ?????/ h / Herb Hour Her Him Gh nite

Slide 81: 

VICTOR GAO, Teaching English Consonants Zhejiang Education Institute No diagram here; during the production of [h] the vocal tract assumes the shape for the following vowel /h/ has limited distribution: it does not appear word-finally it does not appear before other consonants The glottal fricative

Organ awareness practice : 

VICTOR GAO, Teaching English Consonants Zhejiang Education Institute Organ awareness practice

Slide 83: 

VICTOR GAO, Teaching English Consonants Zhejiang Education Institute English has five approximants /l/ – alveolar lateral approximant, e.g lake /r/ – post-alveolar (or retroflex) approximant, e.g. red /j/ – palatal approximant, e.g. year /w/ – labial-velar approximant, e.g. worry /h/ – voiceless labial-velar approximant, e.g. what English approximants

Slide 84: 

VICTOR GAO, Teaching English Consonants Zhejiang Education Institute Places of articulation

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